文章摘要
陈剑明,陈雅飞,徐永健,宁燕,戴铃灵.黑点青鳉的生长和摄食行为发育[J].水产学报,2020,44(1):71~78
黑点青鳉的生长和摄食行为发育
Growth and feeding behavior development of a marine ecotoxicology mode fish-medaka (Oryzias melastigma)
投稿时间:2018-12-28  修订日期:2019-03-05
DOI:10.11964/jfc.20181211603
中文关键词: 黑点青鳉  仔稚鱼期  生长  摄食行为  发育  生态毒理学
英文关键词: Oryzias melastigma  larvae and juvenile  growth  feeding behavior  development  ecotoxicology
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(41276123);宁波市自然科学基金(2017A610282);宁波大学学科开放基金(xkzsc1508)
作者单位E-mail
陈剑明 宁波大学海洋学院, 应用海洋生物技术教育部重点实验室, 浙江 宁波 315382  
陈雅飞 宁波大学海洋学院, 应用海洋生物技术教育部重点实验室, 浙江 宁波 315382  
徐永健 宁波大学海洋学院, 应用海洋生物技术教育部重点实验室, 浙江 宁波 315382 xuyongjian@nbu.edu.cn 
宁燕 宁波大学海洋学院, 应用海洋生物技术教育部重点实验室, 浙江 宁波 315382  
戴铃灵 宁波大学海洋学院, 应用海洋生物技术教育部重点实验室, 浙江 宁波 315382  
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中文摘要:
      针对黑点青鳉实验室养殖成活率低的问题,对其摄食行为发育进行研究,了解其早期阶段的摄食行为发育状况,为人工养殖提供理论依据。通过单摄像机结合镜面成像的方法,对黑点青鳉胚后发育阶段90 d摄食行为的观察与分析,研究了投喂卤虫无节幼体条件下黑点青鳉的生长特征和摄食行为发育。结果显示,幼体体长平均生长率为2.579 %/d,体长与日龄间关系为y=3.132+0.383x−0.004x2+0.000 03x3R2=0.98。通过各项摄食行为指标将其幼体生长发育分为3期6个阶段:仔鱼期(0~10 d)分为前仔鱼期(0~4 d)和后仔鱼期(5~10 d),稚鱼期(11~30 d)分为前稚鱼期(11~18 d)、中稚鱼期(19~24 d)和后稚鱼期(25~30 d),幼鱼期(31~65 d)。黑点青鳉幼体出膜4 d后开始投喂初孵卤虫,至10 d所有鱼苗均能捕食。黑点青鳉仔鱼期幼体死亡率较高,但摄食能力稳步提升,至该期末,摄食成功率提升至45%~55%,摄食效率达0.5~0.6 个/min;稚鱼期幼体的各项摄食指标均有大幅度提升,对饵料的响应时间不断缩短,摄食速率提高,响应距离也逐渐增长,摄食量增大,摄食成功率已提升至90%~95%;幼鱼期各项摄食指标已接近成鱼,摄食效率达9个/min以上,摄食功能已趋于完善。研究表明,黑点青鳉在仔鱼期对卤虫无节幼体的响应距离短、摄食速率低下,摄食成功率与摄食效率均处于较低水平,随着其自身的发育以及摄食能力的稳定提升,摄食成功率和摄食效率逐步提高,成活率趋于稳定。养殖期间,通过密切注意黑点青鳉的摄食行为变化,改变投喂的数量和频次,使更多的仔鱼尽快过渡到稚鱼期,可能是提高养殖成活率的一条有效途径。
英文摘要:
      Aiming at the low survival rate of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma), the experiment was carried out to understand the feeding behavior development of O. melastigma in early stage, so as to find a theoretical basis for breeding. The growth characteristics and feeding behavior of O. melastigma were observed and analyzed by feeding with Artemia nauplii during the first 90 days after hatching, by using a single camera, a waterproof-mirror and fish behavior analyze system. The results were as follows: its average growth rate in body length was 2.579%/d, and the relationship between body length and day-old age was y=3.132+0.383x−0.004x2+0.000 03x3, R2=0.98. Its larvae period could be divided into 3 stages (larvae stage was 0~10 d, juvenile stage was 11-30 d and young stage was 31-65 d) and 6 phases (pre-larvae was 0-4 d, post-larvae was 5-10 d, pre-juvenile was 11-18 d, mid-juvenile was 19-24 d, post-juvenile was 25-30 d, and young was 31-65 d) according to several indicators of the different feeding behavior. On the 4th day after hatching (DAH), O. melastigma were fed with Artemia nauplii that hatched within 12 hours. And all larvae can feed on Artemia nauplii on 10th day after hatching (DAH). There was high mortality rate in larvae stage but the feeding ability was improved steadily. By the end of the period, the feeding success rate increased to 45%-55%, and the feeding efficiency reached 0.5-0.6 ind./min. At the juvenile stage (26-30 d), all indicators of feeding behavior greatly improved, such as the response time to Artemia was shortened and the distance was elongated, the feeding rate increased, and food intake also increased. At the same time, the success rate of feeding rose to a high level, up to 90%-95%. At the young stage, all indicators of feeding behavior were very close to the adult fish. The feeding efficiency reached more than 9 ind./min. Its feeding behavior development was mature, and feeding function tends to prefect at this stage. Experiments show that O. melastigma had a low feeding ability with a short response distance to Artemia nauplii, and the feeding success rate and feeding efficiency were still at a low level. The feeding success rate and feeding efficiency were gradually increased with its own development and feeding ability improving, and the survival rate tended to be stable. It may be an effective way to increase the survival rate of breeding when paying close attention to the changes in feeding behavior of O. melastigma through changing the feeding quantity and frequency to make a faster larvae fish transition to the juvenile period.
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