文章摘要
汪振华,钟佳明,章守宇,王凯,林军,张健,沈慧.褐菖鲉幼鱼对贻贝养殖生境的利用规律初探[J].水产学报,2019,43(9):1900~1913
褐菖鲉幼鱼对贻贝养殖生境的利用规律初探
Habitat use of juvenile rockfish (Sebastiscus marmoratus) in mussel farming waters: a preliminary study
投稿时间:2019-06-08  修订日期:2019-07-28
DOI:10.11964/jfc.20190611831
中文关键词: 褐菖鲉  幼鱼  贻贝养殖  轮纹特征  海洋牧场  生境利用
英文关键词: Sebastiscus marmoratus  juveniles  mussel farming  characteristics of otolith pattern  marine ranching  habitat use
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(41876191,41406153,41606146);国家重点研发计划(2018YFD0900905);现代农业产业技术体系专项(CARS-50)
作者单位E-mail
汪振华 上海海洋大学海洋生态与环境学院, 上海 201306  
钟佳明 上海海洋大学海洋生态与环境学院, 上海 201306  
章守宇 上海海洋大学海洋生态与环境学院, 上海 201306 syzhang@shou.edu.cn 
王凯 上海海洋大学海洋生态与环境学院, 上海 201306  
林军 上海海洋大学海洋生态与环境学院, 上海 201306  
张健 上海海洋大学海洋生态与环境学院, 上海 201306  
沈慧 上海海洋大学海洋生态与环境学院, 上海 201306  
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中文摘要:
      嵊泗海域规模庞大的贻贝养殖生境发挥着养护幼鱼的海洋牧场功能,而探查当地趋礁鱼类在幼体阶段对该生境的利用规律可为当地海洋牧场的设计提供重要参考,为此2018年5—7月对舟山北部枸杞岛贻贝场的褐菖鲉幼鱼、附着生物进行了逐月调查,使用自制网具采集目标生物样品,应用相对密度指数和相关分析法分析了褐菖鲉幼鱼在该生境中的栖息密度、栖息方式和空间分布特征,采用胃含物分析法确定其食性特征,并结合耳石轮纹探究其利用该生境的生长周期。结果显示,褐菖鲉幼鱼的栖息密度时空特征上,5—7月在养殖区贻贝串上的栖息密度分别为(10±6)、(7±5)和(5±5)个/串,时间上呈现逐月递减趋势,随时间的推移养殖区外侧幼体逐渐迁移至内侧近岸区直至消失。栖息方式选择上,褐菖鲉幼鱼栖息数量与贻贝串孔隙大小和附着海藻生物量之间皆呈正相关,但并不显著。饵料利用上,养殖区褐菖鲉幼鱼总体维持较高的摄食强度,各月份平均摄食强度皆高于对照区,主要摄食对象为麦秆虫和钩虾,重量百分比为70.9%和28.3%。栖息周期上,养殖区内褐菖鲉幼鱼耳石平均轮纹数为(57±12)个,其利用养殖贻贝串的周期一般约为2~3月,且该生境中幼鱼耳石纹路间距均匀性和条纹清晰度均明显优于岩礁生境。研究表明,枸杞岛的贻贝养殖生境成为褐菖鲉幼鱼额外的栖息环境,在增殖养护褐菖鲉资源方面发挥了积极作用,因此嵊泗海域在建设海洋牧场时可依据贻贝养殖生境的资源养护原理,通过设置浮体结构强化海洋牧场的饵料场和庇护功能,以提高褐菖鲉种群的补充量,为当地休闲海钓的持续发展提供部分保障。
英文摘要:
      Mussel farming habitat distributed in Shengsi archipelago has been growing in scales since the last century and playing key roles as marine ranching. Fully understanding of habitat use strategies of rock fishes in mussel farming area can be important reference for design of marine ranching programs. A monthly survey targeted on juvenile rockfish Sebastiscus marmoratus was carried out from May to July, 2018 in the northern area of Zhoushan archipelago, in order to explore the habitat use characteristics of juvenile rockfish in mussel farming area, as well as its reference value for marine ranching projects. Self-designed nets were applied to collect juvenile rockfish. Inhabitant density and its spatial distribution characteristics, habitat selection strategies, food selection characteristics based on stomach contents analysis, and early life cycles based on otolith rings, were discussed. The inhabitant density for juvenile rockfish from May to July was respectively (10±6) inds/string, (7±5) inds/string and (5±5) inds/string, showing a monthly decline trend. Juvenile individuals distributed widely during early month and then moved from offshore side of mussel farming area toward inshore side till its complete disappearance in offshore sites. However, sites with the greatest densities were always located beside shoreline area. Positive correlation was detected between juvenile densities and void volume as well as macroalgae biomass from hanging mussel strings based on correlation analysis, although not at significant level. High feeding intensity lasted all three months with zero rate of empty stomachs, and was revealed by stomach content analysis. The average feeding degree was higher in mussel farming area than that in the rocky reef habitat. The juvenile rockfish mainly fed on Amphipoda represented by Caprellidae sp.and Gammaridea sp., which accounted for 99.2% together by weight among its total diet composition. Its early stage inhabited in mussel farming habitat lasted about two to three months with average daily growth ring equal to (57±12) d for juvenile rockfish. Comparison of homogeneousness and regularity on otolith rings revealed that individuals inhabited in mussel farming area showed much more consistence than those from rocky reef habitats. It indicated that hanging strings in mussel farming waters around Gouqi Island supplied ideal habitats to juvenile rockfish by offering much more stable physical environment and abundant food sources, which in turn made great contributions to its stock enhancement and population conservation effects in local areas. It is suggested that local government should pay close attention to habitat use strategies of dominant reef fishes such as rockfish by means of applying suspended structures on proper scales in local marine ranching programs.
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