文章摘要
纪明侯,史昇耀,刘万庆.江蓠琼胶的研究Ⅰ.琼胶的提取与处理[J].水产学报,1965,2(2):1~12
江蓠琼胶的研究Ⅰ.琼胶的提取与处理
STUDIES ON THE AGAR FROM CRACILARIA VERRUCOSAⅠ.EXTRACTION AND TREATMENT OF AGAR
  
DOI:
中文关键词: 尾鳍  二倍体细胞系  染色体
英文关键词: 
基金项目:
作者单位
纪明侯 中国科学院海洋研究所 
史昇耀 中国科学院海洋研究所 
刘万庆 中国科学院海洋研究所 
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中文摘要:
      琼胶(Agar),又称琼脂、冻粉,是由某些红藻(石花菜、江蓠、伊谷草等)加水煮沸提取出的一种极有经济价值的多糖。它在80℃以上时形成溶胶,而在30—40℃时则转变成凝胶。琼胶分子主要是由D-半乳糖和3,6-内醚-L-半乳糖交替地通过C1,3和C1,4相结合成的长链;另外尚含有一定量的SO4、Ca、糖醛酸等。琼胶由于具有特殊的物理化学性质,因而在食品工业、医药卫生以及其他科学研究方面有广泛的用途。解放前,我国的琼胶产量非常少,国内消耗大量依靠进口;解放后,琼胶工业得到了较迅速的发展。
英文摘要:
      1. It is recommended to extract the Gracilaria agar by steam in an autoclaveor an open kettle to shorten the extracting time and to facilitate the filtration. Ex-traction of Gracilaria agar under 3 lb/in2 of steam pressure with 30-or 40-fold ofwater for 1 to 1(1/2) hour and then with 15-fold of water for a half hour, seemedto be more preferable (Table 1, 2,3). 2. When NaOH or KOH was used as an extracting reagent, the gel strength ofagar obtained was highly increased, and NaOH appeared to be more effective thanKOH(Table 4). The mixed reagents of NaOH and KH2PO4showed more marked effecton the yield of agar than did NaOH alone. But the effect of the combination of NaOHand neutral salts solution was about the same as the NaOH alone (Table 5), andvarious salts without NaOH exhibited no distinct effects (Table 6). 3. On the addition of K, Ca, Mg salts to the agar sol, their gel strength wasenbanced in spite of whether or not being heated (Table 7), while the agar sol, trea-ted with NaOH + KH2PO4 under 5 lL/in2 of steam pressure for 1 - 2 hours, and thencooled, thawed and dried, also gave a higher gel strength with about 60% of re-covery (Table 8). 4. The extracted liquor from Gracilaria after adding alkali and heating gave ahigker gel strength than untreated, while no distinct change was observed if inorga-nic salts were added (Table 9). Our experiment on the effect of different heatingtime upon the extracted liquor treated with alkali indicated that their gel strengthincreased with the increase of heating time under 3 lb/in2 of steam pressure, but theyield was relatively low. Judging from the gel strength, the treatment with 1% NaOHunder 3 lb/ in2 of steam pressure for 2 hours seemed to be an optimum condition inobtaining a good quality of agar (Table 10). 5. The Oretreatment of Gracilaria with NaOH + CaCl2 or NaOH alonet showedno marked difference in the gel strength of agar. In the alkali-treated liquor rem-ained about 10 % of agar, whick might be recovered by freezing-drying. The thalliof Gracilaria after treatment with alkali ought to be washed as thoroughly as possiblewith runniug water before the extraction to remove the alkali, or neutralized withacid, and were then subjected to extraction (Table 11).
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