文章摘要
Lin Gongkui.葛洲坝水利枢纽工程截流后长江四大家鱼产卵场调查[J].水产学报,1982,6(4):287~306
葛洲坝水利枢纽工程截流后长江四大家鱼产卵场调查
A SURVEY ON THE SPAWNING GROUNDS OF THE "FOUR FAMOUS CHINESE CARPS" IN THE CHANGJIANG RIVER AFTER DAMMED BY THE KEY WATER CONTROL PROJECT AT GEZHOUBA
  
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Lin Gongkui  
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中文摘要:
      本文报道了葛洲坝水利枢纽工程截流后长江四大家鱼产卵场情况。调查结果表明,长江干流上、中游四大家鱼产卵场的地理分布同60年代的调查结果基本相同。但其产卵总量仅为60年代调查结果的15.7%,资源量已严重衰减。产卵成色同60年代调查资料比较,草鱼和青鱼的比例显著增大,鳙鱼比例略有降低,而鲢鱼的比例显著下降。生殖群体结构已呈现简化(破坏),亲鱼个体变小,年龄组限减少,低龄鱼占群体数量的主导地位,初次性成熟的个体比重较大。调查表明,目前葛洲坝以上江段家鱼产卵数量占总量的36.4%,因此,在长江家鱼资源状况严重恶化的情况下,葛洲坝以上产卵场的地位就益显重要。鉴于葛洲坝水利枢纽工程阻隔了洄游生殖鱼类上溯产卵通道,葛洲坝应尽快修建过鱼设施,使草鱼等洄游性鱼类得以过坝上溯产卵,以保护或扩大四大家鱼及其他经济鱼类的资源。
英文摘要:
      The field work of this survey was carried on from April to July 1981 duringthe breeding season of the "Four famous chinese carps" (Ctenopharyngodon idellus,Mylopharyngodon piceus, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Aristichthys nobilis). The results show that the locations of the spawning grounds of these fishes alongthe up and middle sections of the main stream of the Changjiang River is similar tothe work which was made in 1960s. In 1981, the total amount of the eggs spawned bythe four domestic fishes in the whole surveyed sections of the river is estimatedto be 173 hundred millions. It is only about 15.7% of that in 1960s, and indicatesthat the resources of these fishes in this river has been critically declined. At present, the proportion of the eggs spawned by these fishes in the ChangjiangRiver make a great difference in comparison with that in sixties. In the whole inves-tigated sections of the river, the egg's percentage of C. idellus is 59.8%, M. piceus,31.6%, A. nobilis, 4.7% and H. molitrix, 3.9% in 1981. But in the sixties, the egg'spercentage of C. idelllus is 40.9%, M. piceus, 26.1%, Ⅱ. molitrix, 26.1% and A.nobilis, 6.9%. The changes are remarkable. The structure of reproduction populations of these fishes in the Changjiang Riverhas been presented in simplification (or destruction). It appears as follows in the repro-duction populations: the body-size of parent fishes becomes smaller in common, thenumber of age-groups is reduced, the low-age-fishes appeare to be a dominant and theprimary sex-matured fishes constitute the majority. All of these are the obvious sym-bols of the declination of the resources. The investigation indicates that the resources of these fishes in the ChangjiangRiver has been seriously damaged and the total amount of the eggs spawned by thesefishes has sharply decreased. For the purpose to recover the natural resources or these fishes in the ChangjiangRiver, it is necessary to protect the natural reproduction conditions and rebuild themigration pathway and breeding places of these fishes. Seeing that the migratorypathway has been cut off by the water project at Gezhouba, we propose that thefacilities for a fish passage should be built on the dam.
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