文章摘要
王子臣,刘吉明,朱岸,李文姬,沈永忱.鸭绿江口中国蛤蜊生物学初步研究[J].水产学报,1984,8(1):33~44
鸭绿江口中国蛤蜊生物学初步研究
A PRELIMINARY SURVEY ON THE BIOLOGY OF MACTRA CHINENSIS IN THE OUTFALL OF YALU JIANG RIVER
  修订日期:1992-06-01
DOI:
中文关键词: 鱼呼肠孤病毒  草鱼出血病  抗血清
英文关键词: 
基金项目:
作者单位
王子臣 大连水产学院 
刘吉明 大连水产学院 
朱岸 大连水产学院 
李文姬 大连水产学院 
沈永忱 丹东市水产研究所 
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中文摘要:
      本文对中国蛤蜊生物学进行了初步研究。中国蛤蜊生活在水温-1.9—31.5℃、盐度8.6—34.8‰的浅海或潮间带,埋栖在2—7厘米深的泥砂中,移动性较强。成体以浮游硅藻类为主要食物。1、2龄时生长迅速;3 龄后生长缓慢。六月初软体部丰满,鲜出肉率为40.32%。中国蛤蜊雌雄异体,满1龄性成熟。繁殖期在五月下旬到九月间。五月下旬表层水温14—15℃时有少量产卵。性细胞分批成熟分批排放。卵子在胚胞期即能接受精子,并能进行正常的受精发育,可进行人工解剖授精。可用阴干、流水、升温等方法,诱导其产卵。胚胎发育适宜温度的下限在16℃左右。
英文摘要:
      Mactra chinensis inhabits in the shallow seas or inter-tidal zones adjacent to riveroutfalls by burrowing into the muddy sand bed 2--7 cm in depth. It can ambulateto some extent and has a great adaptability to the varied environment, such as theannual water temperature varies from -- 1.9--31.5℃, annual salinity varies from8.6--34.8% and also the seasonal dilution of salinity by outpouring of fresh water.The clamr lives chiefly on planktonic diatoms. The amount and components ofthe stomach contents at different sea areas and differant seasons have been observedand it is found to be in accordance with the species which were taken as diet underthese specific enviornments.The clam is gonochorism. It reaches its sexual maturity in a full year term. Theripened sexual cells discharge in batches. Its spawning period starts in late of May atthe water temperature over 14℃. The temperature can be raised by artificial metho-ds. Expediting on parturition can be obtained by induced spawning or by running-w-ater stimulation.The ovum of the clam can be artificially fertilized and normally developed. Thelower limit of temperature for embryonic development lies near 10℃. The larvae livechiefly on small-sized unicellular algae.The clam grows fast in the first three years, especially the first two years, itssize reaches to 3 cm at the end of first year and 4--5 cm in the second year,while inharvesting its size reaches to 5 cm. At the beginning of June, its soft portion (meatportion) becomes fully developed with a most production rats of 40.32%.Appendant formation can be observed at the basal portion of outer gill of theclam.
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