文章摘要
李纯厚.考洲洋浮游植物种类组成与数量分布特征[J].水产学报,2005,29(3):
考洲洋浮游植物种类组成与数量分布特征
Characteristics of species composition and quantity distribution of phytoplankton in Kaozhouyang Bay
投稿时间:2014-03-13  修订日期:2014-03-13
DOI:
中文关键词: 考洲洋 浮游植物 种类组成 数量分布
英文关键词: Kaozhouyang Bay  phytoplankton  species composition  quantity distribution
基金项目:国家科技攻关项目
作者单位地址
李纯厚 中国水产科学研究院南海水产研究所农业部渔业生态环境重点开放实验室 中国水产科学研究院南海水产研究所农业部渔业生态环境重点开放实验室
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中文摘要:
      为了科学评价考洲洋海洋生态养殖示范区的渔业生态环境质量状况,1999年2月和8月对该湾浮游植物的种类组成及数量分布进行了调查研究,结果表明,调查海域共出现浮游植物188种,分属硅藻142种、甲藻22种、蓝藻5种、绿藻18种和裸藻1种共5大门类,硅藻是主要优势类群.种类组成以淡水、咸淡水的沿岸性种类为主,其区域分布和季节变动特征与调查海域海水盐度变动规律趋势一致.枯水期优势种有明显的区域差异,主要优势种为翼根管藻纤细变型、洛氏角毛藻和奇异菱形藻;丰水期优势种较为单一,大片海域均以中肋骨条藻和热带骨条藻为主要优势种,优势指数平均达95.8%,湾西北部海域则以银灰平列藻和中肋骨条藻为主要优势种.浮游植物群落多样性指数显示明显的季节和区域差异,呈现枯水期明显高于丰水期,西北部明显高于东南部趋势.浮游植物密度以丰水期明显高于枯水期,东南部海域明显高于西北部海域;丰水期平均密度达到26 471.3?104ind?m-3,是枯水期的66.2倍;平面分布的季节变化显示明显差异,枯水期以东北部的吉隆河口和东南入海水道数量较高,而丰水期则表现为明显的自西北部向东南部海域递增的趋势.
英文摘要:
      Kaozhouyang Bay is a typical semi2closed bay extended to the inland from Honghai Bay in South China Sea , which covers 29.7 km2 of total water area and 13. 73 km2 of beach area with the unique natural environment and predominant resource condition inside the bay. Being ranked to be the ecological mariculturing demonstration area in Guangdong Province , the bay was abundant in some special culturing species such as the famous“Tiechong Hao”(one species of oyster) . However , due to the lacking of planning program and scientific management , the phenomenon of disorderly development and over2utilization with the fishery multiculture in the waters of the bay in the recent years resulted in the frequent occurrences of fish diseases and then , to some extent , hampered the continual development of the fishery multiculture in Kaozhou Bay. In order to protect the ecological environment inside the bay , a survey on the ecological environment was carried out from 1999 to 2000. This paper reported the characteristics of the species composition and quantity distribution of phytoplankton in the bay. According to the result , altogether 188 species were identified in the survey waters , which belonged to 5 phyla with 142 species of Bacillariophyta , 22 species of Pyrrophyta , 5 species of Cyanophyta , 18 species of Chlorophyta and 1 species of Euglenophyta. Of all the phyla, diatom was the main predominant group. The species composition mainly consisted of the coastal species of fresh and salty2fresh , and the horizontal distribution and seasonal variation accorded with the water salinity variation in the survey waters. In the dry season , the predominant species changed complicatedly with an obvious regional succession characteristic and great variation , and the main predominant species were Rhizosolenia alata f . gracillima , Chaetoceros lorenzianus and Nitzschia paradoxa. While in the wet season , the predominant species was simple , and most of the waters was dominated by Skeletonema costatum and S . tropicum with the average predominant degree of 95. 8 % , and in the northwestern waters the predominant species changed to Merismopedia glauca and Skeletonema costatum. The seasonal variation and regional variation of the diversity index of phytoplankton were obvious and showed a trend that the dry season was higher than the wet season and the northwestern waters was higher than the southeastern waters. The mean cell density in the wet season reached to 26 471. 7 ?104 ind?m 3 , which was 66. 2 times that of the dry season. The distribution of the cell density showed the increasing trend from the northwestern waters to the southeastern waters.
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