文章摘要
吴常文.几种深水网箱养殖鱼类行为习性的观察[J].水产学报,2006,30(4):481~488
几种深水网箱养殖鱼类行为习性的观察
Study on the behavioral characteristics of fishes in the deep water sea cage
投稿时间:2008-05-29  修订日期:2008-05-29
DOI:10.3724/SP.J.00001
中文关键词: 深水网箱  大黄鱼  美国红鱼  鲈鱼  真鲷  黑鲷  行为习性
英文关键词: deep water cage  Pseudosciaena crocea  Sciaenops ocellatus  Lateolabrax japonicus  Pagros major  Sparus macrocephalus  behavioral characteristics
基金项目:国家“863”计划资源环境技术领域海洋生物技术主题资助项目(2001AA623020和2003AA623020)
作者单位E-mail
吴常文 浙江海洋学院 wucw08@126.com 
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中文摘要:
      运用鱼类生态学、鱼类行为学以及水产养殖学研究方法,对几种深水网箱养殖鱼类的行为习性进行了观察,结果表明:对干露的耐受力强弱依次为黑鲷、真鲷、鲈鱼、美国红鱼和大黄鱼;大黄鱼分布于中下层网箱边缘、集群、不争斗,美国红鱼均匀分布于中下层、集群、争斗激烈,鲈鱼均匀分布于中下层、较少集群、争斗激烈,真鲷分布于下、底层网箱边缘、较少集群、争斗,黑鲷分布于下、底层网箱边缘、较少集群、争斗;摄食节律明显,与潮水涨落有关,在接近早晨、傍晚的平潮或停潮时间内形成两个摄食高峰;对饵料具有选择性,对饥饿的耐受能力较强,不同投饵方式对鱼类摄食强度有影响,对饥饿的耐受力随着水温的降低而增强;7-8月份日平均摄食率最高,2月份最低,鱼类的摄食率与水温有密切的关系;昼夜活动习性不明显,流急时分布于网箱底部或下游网箱边缘,流缓时活动分布范围明显扩大;抗风、浪、流能力强弱依次为美国红鱼、鲈鱼、大黄鱼、黑鲷、真鲷。
英文摘要:
      By using such methods as were used in fish ecology, behaviouristics and mariculture disciplines, a study on the behavioral characteristics of fishes in the deep water sea cages was done. Altogether fives fishes were studied, with results showing that the endurance ranking when exposing to the air was Sparus macrocephalus, Pagros major, Lateolabrax japonicus, Sciaenops ocellatus and Pseudosciaena crocea. P. crocea lived in the middle and lower water near cage net, schooling and didn't fight with each other. However, Sciaenops ocellatus fought with each other fiercely and schooled everywhere in the middle and lower waters. Lateolabrax japonicus also lived in the middle and lower waters, rarely schooled but fought fiercely. Lateolabrax japonicus distributed ne ar the ridge of lower waters and cage bottom, rarely schooled and also fought with others, so did Sparus macrocephalus. The five species took on obvious food taking rhythm and were of tidal regularity. There were two food taking peaks in the period of slack tide near at dawn and dusk. They had a selectivity to the food and strong tolerance to starvation. The lower the water temperature, the stronger the tolerance to starvation. The food taking intensity was related to feeding methods. It assumed to be a positive correlation to water temperatures, peaking in July and August and going to its valley in February. There was not apparent difference of activity whether in the day or not. When at swift water condition, almost all the fishes habited in the bottom and near bottom ridge; otherwise, they would swim everywhere. The ability concerning wind, flow and wave resistance were different, with S. ocellatus being best, Lateolabrax japonicus the second and so on with Pseudosciaena crocea, Sparus macrocephalus, Pagros major.
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