文章摘要
张国范.关于贝类遗传改良几个问题的讨论[J].水产学报,2006,30(1):
关于贝类遗传改良几个问题的讨论
Theory and method of genetic improvement in mariculture mollusks: a review
投稿时间:2014-03-09  修订日期:2014-03-09
DOI:
中文关键词: 养殖贝类 遗传改良 杂交 系统选育 分子育种 性状退化
英文关键词: mariculture mollusk genetic improvement hybridization systematic selection molecular breeding trait depression
基金项目:国家863计划(2003AA603023和2004AA626070);国家自然科学基金(30371117)
作者单位地址
张国范 中国科学研究院海洋研究所 中国科学研究院海洋研究所
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中文摘要:
      贝类大多为雌雄异体,少数种类是雌雄同体,在雌雄异体的种类也有部分个体表现为雌雄同体,而且雌雄异体型贝类还常有性转变现象。养殖贝类大多行体外受精并具有配子量大、子裔数量多等特点。野生型贝类表型方差大,遗传变异水平高。可见,贝类是一群比较独特的动物,其生殖方面的某些特性与作物的共同点甚至超过与高等动物的共同点。因此仅依靠脊椎动物或植物的育种方法,难以解决好贝类的种质改良问题。
英文摘要:
      A strategy to improve aquaculture mollusks in genetics, which involve the theory, method, material and application system, is very important for the sustainable development of the marine molluscan breeding and industry. Selection and hybridization as the traditional way have proved effective in the genetic improvement of mariculture mollusks. The growth had increased significantly by selective breeding in oysters as well as the resisitance to MSX and QX disease. A frame chart of genetic improvement of mollusks had been derived from the breeding application of abalone and scallop. The systematic breeding with selection and hybridization has a substantial progress based on the family establishment in Haliotis discus hannai, H. diversicolor, Argopecten irradians, Chlamysfarreri and Pinctada martensii. The first self-fertilized family of bay scallop had been established in the 1999 and then a series of family lines with different traits have been succeed and formed the basic element of genetic breeding. The hybridization of Pacific abalone between diffeent populations with a large genetic distance has showed a remarkable traits. The hybrid of Pacific abalone has applied to improve the traits of growth and resistance in the aquaculture and 98 % seed used in the farming is hybrid. The hybridization among populations has used in other mariculture mollusks such as zhikong scallop, bay scallop, pearl oyster and small abalone. Hybridization among different populations and systematic and massive selection are the dominant approaches in the genetic improvement of mollusks. So far in China the material system for molluscan genetics and breeding is more considerable as well as the basic theory of beritabilily, hetemsis, inbreeding depression, genetic-environment interaction for the genetic improvement. The different lines have been produced by self-fertifization, inbreeding and crossing and some serf-fertilized lines of bay scallop have been bred to F4 successively. The color traits heritable are useful as the marker of selective breeding. It is necessary to deal with the molecular marker-assisted selection and design breeding. The molluscan mortality happened in aquaculture was mainly resulted from the physiological depression under the interaction of genetics and environment. So the phenomena of minimization and abnormal mortality in the mariculture mollusks should be described as "trait depression".
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