文章摘要
肖述,喻子牛.养殖牡蛎的选择育种研究与实践[J].水产学报,2008,32(2):287~295
养殖牡蛎的选择育种研究与实践
Review of selective breeding research and practice in oyster cultivation
投稿时间:2008-02-27  修订日期:2008-02-27
DOI:10.3724/SP.J.00001
中文关键词: 牡蛎  群体选育  家系选育  育种
英文关键词: oyster  mass selection  family selection  breeding research
基金项目:国家高技术研究发展计划,国家自然科学基金
作者单位E-mail
肖述 中国科学院南海海洋研究所 xiaoshu@scsio.ac.cn 
喻子牛 中国科学院南海海洋研究所 xiaoshu@scsio.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      综述了世界上牡蛎选择育种实践和育种计划概况,简要回顾了牡蛎选育实践所取得的进展和成果,尤其总结了世界上几种重要的经济种类如太平洋牡蛎、美洲牡蛎、欧洲牡蛎、澳洲牡蛎 等在生长、产量、抗病、抗逆性等性状方面的选育实践情况。牡蛎育种目前主要采用常规育种技术—群体选择和家系选择, 实践中两种方法都取得了明显的成果,且对牡蛎重要经济性状遗传力估计基本一致(体重遗传力:0.25~0.69;个体大小遗传力:0.2~0.5)。这表明了常规育种理论和育种技术能有效地应用于牡蛎选择育种。预计这些常规育种技术和现代生物技术的进一步发展以及它们有机的结合,将为牡蛎新品种培育开创新的局面。
英文摘要:
      Oyster is one of the commercially important shellfish species in the world, and oyster cultivation has been one of the most prevalent shellfish quaculture industries. Selective breeding researches and programs for several commercial oyster species are briefly reviewed and the progress made from these programs is summarized in this paper. Particularly, the achievement of genetic improvement for growth, yield and disease resistance in some economically important oysters (the Pacific oyster, American oyster, European oyster and Sydney rock oyster et al.) is outlined accordingly here. So far, some fast growth lines and disease resistant strains have already been created. Two strategies, mass selection or family selection, were employed in these sel ective researches and programs. Both of them have been proved effective and fruitful. The estimations of heritability for live weight and whole size were in the range of 0.25-0.69 and of 0.2-0.5, respectively. All these efforts and results clearly showed that the regular breeding theories and techniques were applicable to oysters. Hopefully, the developments of regular breeding technology and that of molecular biology technology are expected to create a new era for oyster breeding science and practices in the future.
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