文章摘要
闫喜武,王琦,张跃环,霍忠明,赵越,杨凤,张国范.中国蛤蜊的家系建立及早期生长发育研究[J].水产学报,2010,34(4):521~530
中国蛤蜊的家系建立及早期生长发育研究
The study of establishment of families and their early growth and development for Surf clam Mactra chinensis philipi
投稿时间:2008-12-10  修订日期:2009-07-18
DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1231.2010.06262
中文关键词: 中国蛤蜊  家系  生长  存活  变态
英文关键词: Mactra chinensis Philipi  family  growth  survival  metamorphosis
基金项目:国家高技术研究发展计划
作者单位E-mail
闫喜武 大连海洋大学 yanxiwu2002@163.com 
王琦 大连海洋大学  
张跃环 大连海洋大学 kilroy9269@163.com 
霍忠明 大连海洋大学生命科学与技术学院  
赵越 大连海洋大学  
杨凤 大连海洋大学  
张国范 中国科学院海洋研究所  
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中文摘要:
      摘要:于2008年7月,采用不平衡巢式设计建立了中国蛤蜊家系(7个父系半同胞家系和21个全同胞家系:A1、A2、A3……G1、G2、G3),并对各家系的卵径、受精率、孵化率及生长、存活和变态等相关指标进行了分析。结果表明:各家系蛤蜊的卵径、受精率、孵化率及D形幼虫大小均无显著差异(P>0.05)。 就其生长而言,不同发育阶段各家系的个体大小不同,生长速度不同,受父本效应、母本效应及雄内雌间作用的影响。幼虫浮游期,G1壳长最大,生长速度为10.04±1.67 μm•d-1;A2壳长最小,生长速度为6.07±1.32 μm•d-1。幼虫匍匐期,B3生长最快,其生长速度为29.93±3.67 μm•d-1;D1生长最慢,其生长速度为16.72±2.73 μm•d-1。稚贝期,G3壳长最大,生长速度为83.14±5.85μm•d-1;A2、A3的壳长较小,其生长速度分别为57.78±5.44μm•d-1,55.86±4.48μm•d-1。就其存活而言,幼虫浮游期,A2、C1、E3、F2、G1、G2的存活率较高(>85%),B2、D1存活率最小(<35%);稚贝培育期,G1存活率(70.40%)最高;A1(23.40%)、C2(20.90%)、F1(19.30%)的存活率较低。变态期间,各家系的生长速度不同,G1、G3生长速度分别为7.94±1.53 μm•d-1、7.96±1.52 μm•d-1;D1生长速度最小,仅为5.23±0.75μm•d-1。各家系的变态率不同,B1、E1、G2变态率均在80%以上,E2(41.24%)、F1(43.25%)变态率较低。各家系的变态规格存在差异,随着变态时间的延长变态规格小型化;G1、G2、G3变态规格最大(240μm),变态时间最短(13d);D1变态规格最小,仅为226.65±5.65μm,变态时间最长(17d)。综合各家系生长、存活等早期表型性状,G3生长最快,F2存活率最高,G1产量最高,可进一步作为中国蛤蜊的育种材料。
英文摘要:
      Abstract: A total of 7 half-sib families and 21 full-sib families (A1、A2、A3……G1、G2、G3) of Sunray surf clam Mactra chinensis Philipi were established by using the method of unbalanced nest design in 2007, 9. Phenotypic traits of different families, such as egg-diameter, fertilization rates, hatching rates, and larval and juvenile growth, survival and metamorphosis were analyzed. The results showed that egg-diameter, fertilization rates, hatching rates, and D larval size were non-significant difference among families (P>0.05). Considering growth, growth was varied at different development stages for each family and was influenced on maternal effect, paternal effect and male within female effect. G1 had the largest shell length with the growth rate 10.04±1.67 μm•d-1; whereas A2 had the smallest shell length with 6.07±1.32 μm•d-1during pelagic period of larvae. B3 grew fastest in filial generation of family with 29.93±3.67 μm•d-1; whereas D1 grew slowest in filial generation of family with 16.72±2.73 μm•d-1 during plantigrade period. G3 had the largest shell length with the growth rate83.14±5.85μm•d-1; whereas A2, A3 of juvenile indoor period had the smallest shell length with growth rate 57.78±5.44μm•d-1, 55.86±4.48μm•d-1 respectively. Considering survival, A2, C1, E3, F2, G1 and G2 had higher survival rate (>85%) in filial generation of family, whereas B2、D1 had lower survival rate(<35%) in filial generation of family during pelagic period of larvae. G1 had the highest survival rate (70.40%) in filial generation of family, whereas A1(23.40%), C2 (20.90%), F1(19.30%) had lower survival rate in filial generation of family during juvenile indoor period. Considering metamorphosis, growth rate was varied for each family, which the growth rate of G1and G3 were 7.94±1.53 μm•d-1, 7.96±1.52 μm•d-1 respectively, but the growth of D1 was only 5.23±0.75μm•d-1. B1, E1 and G2 had higher metamorphosis (>80%) in filial generation of family, whereas E2(41.24%)、F1(43.25%) had lowest metamorphosis in filial generation of family. However, as the metamorphic time prolonged, the metamorphic size decreased. G1、G2、G3 had the largest metamorphic size (240μm) with the shortest metamorphic time (13d), whereas D1 had the lowest metamorphic size (226.65±5.65μm) with the longest metamorphic time (17d). By summarizing the early phenotypic traits of families, G3, F2 and G1 respectively inherited the excellent traits such as fast growth, strong stress resistance, and high yield, and were further used as the breeding material for rearing of new sunray surf clam strains.
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