文章摘要
曾少葵,杨萍,邓楚津,洪鹏志,崔绮珊,章超桦,李来好.罗非鱼皮明胶的脱腥方法及理化性质[J].水产学报,2010,34(3):349~356
罗非鱼皮明胶的脱腥方法及理化性质
Study on the removal fishy odour and physicochemical properties of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) skin gelatin
投稿时间:2009-09-01  修订日期:2009-11-27
DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1231.2010.06582
中文关键词: 罗非鱼  鱼皮  明胶  鱼腥味  理化性质  挥发性成分
英文关键词: Nile tilapia  skin  gelatin  fishy odour  physicochemical properties  volatile components
基金项目:广东省农业重点项目(2008A020100006,2009B020201003)
作者单位E-mail
曾少葵 广东海洋大学 zsk1105@126.com 
杨萍 广东海洋大学  
邓楚津 广东海洋大学  
洪鹏志 广东海洋大学  
崔绮珊 广东海洋大学  
章超桦 广东海洋大学  
李来好 中国水产科学研究院南海水产研究所  
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中文摘要:
      以罗非鱼鱼皮明胶为原料,通过感官评定比较活性炭吸附法、酵母菌发酵法及乳酸菌发酵法的去腥效果,从中筛选出适宜的脱腥方法;采用正交试验探讨不同的脱腥条件对明胶溶液透明度及腥味感官评分值的影响。同时对经脱腥处理后的明胶进行理化性质分析,并利用同时蒸馏萃取与气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)联用技术测定其挥发性成分,为工业化制备无腥味罗非鱼皮明胶提供理论依据。结果表明:活性炭吸附法、酵母菌发酵法及乳酸菌发酵法均对明胶溶液具有脱腥作用,它们之间的脱腥效果差异显著(P﹤0.05),其中以活性炭吸附法脱腥效果最好。正交试验确定的活性炭吸附脱腥的适宜条件为添加1.5%(w/v)活性炭到5%(w/v)明胶溶液中,40 ℃吸附30 min。经脱腥处理后制得的明胶无腥味,粗蛋白含量为91.3%,凝胶强度高达301 g,透明度增加,水不溶物减少;GC-MS分析结果显示,明胶溶液脱腥前检出的挥发性成分有33种,其中大部分是酯类物质,其次是醇类、酮类和烯类等物质,明胶溶液脱腥后检出的挥发性成分有26种,种类及相对含量比脱腥前的少,减少的主要是烯类和酮类物质。研究表明,活性炭吸附法能有效去除明胶的腥味,改善其理化性质,可应用于工业化生产无腥味罗非鱼皮明胶。
英文摘要:
      Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) aquaculture is expanding throughout the world, most notably in China. According to the statistics of FAO, annual China’s production of tilapia by 2008 had risen to nearly 1.2 million tons, which accounts for about 50% of tilapia production in the world. During processing of tilapia to fillets, large quantities of the by products such as skin are produced. On one hand, collagen contents in tilapia skins are rich. On the other hand, the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) episode, as well as religious concerns, has led to intensive research to identify and develop alternatives to mammal derived gelatin. Therefore, tilapia skin can be a good resource of extracting gelatin. However, gelatin extraction from tilapia skin usually had a strong fishy odour, which would limit its utilization. In order to be applied to food and pharmaceutical industries, some methods must be adopted to make the gelatin odorless. In the present study, methods of active carbon absorption, yeast and lactobacillus fermentation were used to remove fishy odour in the gelatin, in which their roles to diminish fishy odour were compared with each other by sensory analysis. And the effects of active carbon absorption conditions on the transmittance and sensory scores of the gelatin solution were studied by orthogonal experiments. After removing fishy odour, the physicochemical properties of the gelatin were studied and its volatile components were evaluated by simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Sensory analysis showed that the effects of fishy odour removal of gelatin were significantly different among methods of active carbon absorption, yeast and lactobacillus fermentation (P<0.05). Among these methods, the best one was active carbon absorption. The results of orthogonal experiment indicated that the optimal conditions were the ratio of active carbon addition to 5% (w/v) gelatin solution 1.5% (w/v), and incubated at 40 ℃ for 30 min. After removal treatment, fishy odour in the tilapia skin gelatin was barely detectable. The content of crude protein in the gelatin was 91.3% and its gel strength was high up to 301 g. The transmittance of the tilapia skin gelatin solution was higher than before treatment, and the content of water undissolved matter was diminished. A total of 33 volatile components in tilapia skin gelatin solution before removing fishy odour were detected by simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The volatile compounds of the gelatin solution were predominantly esters, followed by alcohols, ketones and olefines. After removing fishy odour, a total of volatile components in gelatin solution have been diminished to 26 kinds, which were mainly olefines and ketones. The research shows that active carbon absorption appears as a suitable technique to remove fishy odour in tilapia skin gelatin and to improve their physicochemical properties. So, it can be used for industrial production of fishy odour free tilapia skin gelatin.
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