文章摘要
刘海金,刘永新,侯吉伦,孙朝徽,王桂兴,王玉芬,张晓彦.牙鲆减数分裂与有丝分裂雌核发育的遗传差异[J].水产学报,2010,34(6):718~724
牙鲆减数分裂与有丝分裂雌核发育的遗传差异
Genetic difference between meiotic gynogenesis and mitotic gynogenesis in the Japanese flounder
投稿时间:2010-02-04  修订日期:2010-03-29
DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1231.2010.06830
中文关键词: 牙鲆  减数分裂雌核发育  有丝分裂雌核发育  微卫星
英文关键词: Japanese flounder  meiotic gynogenesis  mitotic gynogenesis  microsatellite
基金项目:国家科技支撑计划(2006BAD01A12017);国家鲆鲽类产业技术体系建设项目(nycytx-50-G02);公益类农业行业科研专项(nyhycx07-046-鲆鲽)
作者单位E-mail
刘海金 中国水产科学研究院 liuhaijin2005@126.com 
刘永新 中国水产科学研究院  
侯吉伦 东北农业大学动物科学技术学院  
孙朝徽 中国水产科学研究院北戴河中心实验站  
王桂兴 中国水产科学研究院北戴河中心实验站  
王玉芬 中国水产科学研究院北戴河中心实验站  
张晓彦 中国水产科学研究院北戴河中心实验站  
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中文摘要:
      利用同一尾牙鲆亲鱼的同一批卵子诱导减数分裂雌核发育二倍体和有丝分裂雌核发育二倍体,同时用牙鲆精子做人工授精制备普通二倍体,作为对照组。利用10对微卫星引物对普通二倍体和两种雌核发育二倍体进行遗传分析。结果表明,母本基因型在8个位点为杂合,2个位点为纯合。普通二倍体有6种基因型,等位基因均来自父母本的随机结合,类型丰富;母本与子代、子代个体之间的遗传相似系数分别为0.452 8和0.560 3,接近随机交配群体的遗传相似度。减数分裂雌核发育二倍体有3种基因型,除在1个位点出现异于母本的纯合基因型外,其他所有位点的基因型与母本完全一致;母本与子代、子代个体之间遗传相似系数分别为0.976 6和0.959 5,接近近交系的遗传相似度。有丝分裂雌核发育二倍体有2种基因型,且全部为纯合型;母本与子代、子代个体之间遗传相似系数分别为0.806 2和0.742 5,有丝分裂雌核发育二倍体全部为纯合个体。减数分裂雌核发育二倍体具有高度的遗传相似性,适于固定母本性状;有丝分裂雌核发育二倍体纯合度高,适于作为制备克隆的亲本;两者具有明显不同的遗传特性,均可作为特征不同的育种材料。
英文摘要:
      In this study reproduction by meiotic gynogenetic diploids and mitotic gynogenetic doubled haploids were carried out in Japanese flounder,Paralichthys olivaceus, by the same fertilized eggs from one female.The process of meiotic diploids and mitotic diploids produced involves two steps.First,the DNA of the sperm is fragmented by UV irradiation.Next,the meiotic diploids are made by prevention of the extrusion of the secondary polocyte and the haploid embryo is made diploid by inhibition of the first cell division.This is typically done by a cold and pressure shock administered around the time of the prophase of the second meiotic and first mitotic division,respectively.All the while normal diploids with Japanese flounder sperm were also produced as controls.Normal diploids and two gynogenetic diploids were analyzed by unilocus 10 microsatellites loci.The result showed the parental genotypes were found to be heterozygous at 7 loci and heterozygous at 3 loci.6 genotypes were found in normal diploid,alleles were random combination from the parents and the types enriched.Genetic similarity indexes were 0.976 6 and 0.959 5 between female and progenies and among progeny individuals,respectively,which approached that of the inbred line.Two genotypes were found to be completely homozygous in mitotic gynogenetic double haploid.Genetic similarity indexes were 0.806 2 and 0.742 5 between female and progenies and among progeny individuals.Furthermore,mitotic gynogenetic doubled haploids were fully homozygous.Meiotic gynogenetic diploids with a high degree of genetic similarity were suitable for fixing traits of female.Mitotic gynogenetic doubled haploids with high homogeneity were suitable as clonal founders.Differently from meiotic gynogenesis diploidization is based on a prekaryogamic oocyte manipulation,in mitotic gynogenesis it is actually a postkaryogamic zygotic manipulation.The resulting mitotic gynogenetic double haploids are all homozygous but not clonal because they do not necessarily share the same alleles owing to variable chromosome segregation and genetic recombination during maternal gametogenesis.Each of them,however,can be a clonal founder capable of giving rise to an isoallelic clone,if reproduced gynogenetically.Although mitotic gynogenesis can achieve homozygote according one generation,but the survival rate of process in induction,incubation and maturation is relatively low,the establishment of clone is extremely difficult.Thus,scholars have proposed to improve the genetic similarity and fix the good traits of female with successive meiosis induced methods.In view of distinct genetic characteristics in both diploids,as long as the successful induction,it can play an important role in fixing characters of female and clone production.Both kinds of gynogenesis can become high quality breeding materials or improved strains.
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