文章摘要
许强,高菲,杨红生.海带组织降解过程中定殖微型生物群落的特征[J].水产学报,2010,34(12):1853~1859
海带组织降解过程中定殖微型生物群落的特征
Micro organism colonization in different decomposing phases of kelp(Laminaria japonica)
投稿时间:2010-05-30  修订日期:2010-09-27
DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1231.2010.06981
中文关键词: 海带  脂肪酸标志  降解  定殖  微型生物
英文关键词: Laminaria japonica  fatty acid biomarker  degradation  colonization  micro organism
基金项目:国家“十一五”科技支撑计划项目(2006BAD09A02);国家“八六三”高技术研究发展计划(2006AA100304);国家自然科学基金项目(40906071)
作者单位
许强 中国科学院海洋研究所,海洋生态与环境科学重点实验室 
高菲 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 
杨红生 中国科学院海洋研究所,海洋生态与环境科学重点实验室 
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中文摘要:
      运用脂肪酸标志法分析了海带新鲜组织、降解组织及脱落碎屑中定殖微型生物群落的组成特征。研究结果显示,降解组织和脱落碎屑的总脂含量显著提高,单不饱和脂肪酸和多不饱和脂肪酸相对含量降低。降解组织和脱落碎屑中细菌脂肪酸标志18∶1(n-7)和奇数碳及支链脂肪酸含量相比于新鲜叶片有大幅度的提高,表明碎屑中定殖了繁盛的细菌群落;海带碎屑的硅藻脂肪酸标志16∶1(n-7)/16∶0比值最高,降解组织中该比值也显著高于新鲜叶片,表明硅藻类也大量定殖于海带降解组织和碎屑中。鲜海带组织中不含原生动物脂肪酸标志——DHA,而在降解叶片和脱落碎屑中都检测到一定含量的该标志物(0.65%和1.57%),指示了原生动物在海带降解组织和碎屑中的定殖。各种微型生物的定殖与生物降解作用显著改变了降解海带叶片及海带碎屑的有机碳氮特征,新鲜海带叶片组织碳、氮比值高达17.32,而降解组织和海带碎屑有机氮含量有较大幅度的升高,碳、氮比值则分别下降为6.61和6.48。研究结果表明,海带脱落碎屑并非单一成分,而是以海带降解残片为主体,同时混杂有硅藻类、细菌和原生动物群落的混合体。海带碎屑通过各种微型生物的定殖与生物降解作用,其有机氮含量升高,碳、氮比值显著下降,使其更适宜作为基于海带的养殖生态系统中其它生物的食物来源。
英文摘要:
      The micro organism communities which colonized on fresh blade,decomposing blade and detritus of kelp Laminaria japonica were analyzed using fatty acid biomarkers.Results showed that the total crude lipid contents of decomposing blade and kelp detritus were significantly higher than those in fresh kelp blade,whereas monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids contents were less than those in fresh blade.Bacterial biomarkers 18∶1(n-7)and odd/branched fatty acids were more abundant in decomposing tissue and detritus than fresh kelp,indicating the colonization of bacteria in the kelp decomposing process.The diatom biomarker 16∶1(n-7)/16∶0 ratio exhibited the highest in kelp detritus,and it was also higher in decomposing tissue than in fresh blade,indicating the adherence of large amount of diatoms.No protozoa fatty acid biomarker(DHA)was detected in fresh kelp blade; however,it existed in decomposing tissue and detritus at a relative concentration of 0.65% and 1.57% respectively,indicating the colonization of protozoa.Due to the colonization of complex micro organism community,decomposing kelp blade and kelp detritus showed different carbon and nitrogen components.Fresh kelp blade had a high C/N ratio of 17.32,but in decomposing tissue and detritus,the organic nitrogen content increased remarkably,which resulted in the decline of the C/N ratio to 6.61 and 6.48.Results confirmed that kelp detritus is a mixture of decomposing kelp debris,diatoms,bacteria and protozoa.Through the colonization of different kinds of micro organisms and biodegradation,kelp debris became organic nitrogen abundant and more nutritious,hence much more suitable as the food source of other consumers in a kelp-based polyculture area.
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