文章摘要
张艳萍,娄忠玉,苏军虎,焦文龙,王太,龚雪芬,祁世会,吴建平,魏彦明.极边扁咽齿鱼人工繁殖技术[J].水产学报,2010,34(11):1698~1703
极边扁咽齿鱼人工繁殖技术
Artificial propagation of Platypharodon extremus
投稿时间:2010-06-28  修订日期:2010-09-18
DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1231.2010.07009
中文关键词: 极边扁咽齿鱼  亲鱼培育  人工繁殖
英文关键词: Platypharodon extremus  brood fish breeding  artificial propagation
基金项目:甘肃省技术研究与开发专项计划项目(1004TCYA020,0805TCYA021);甘肃省重点实验室建设计划项目(1009RTSA006);甘肃农业大学学生科研训练计划(SRTP)项目(201008005)
作者单位E-mail
张艳萍 甘肃农业大学生命科学技术学院 jhsu_627@126.com 
娄忠玉 甘肃省水产科学研究所,甘肃省冷水性鱼类种质资源与遗传育种重点实验室  
苏军虎 甘肃省水产科学研究所,甘肃省冷水性鱼类种质资源与遗传育种重点实验室  
焦文龙 甘肃省水产科学研究所,甘肃省冷水性鱼类种质资源与遗传育种重点实验室  
王太 甘肃省水产科学研究所,甘肃省冷水性鱼类种质资源与遗传育种重点实验室  
龚雪芬 甘肃农业大学生命科学技术学院  
祁世会 甘肃农业大学生命科学技术学院  
吴建平 甘肃农业大学动物科技学院  
魏彦明 甘肃农业大学动物医学院  
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中文摘要:
      捕获黄河上游玛曲段极边扁咽齿鱼,在甘肃省临夏国家级鲑鳟鱼良种场驯养后,进行人工繁殖研究。结果发现,极边扁咽齿鱼繁殖期为5-6月,雌鱼和雄鱼都在6龄达到性成熟,雌鱼成熟系数为18.19%~23.02%,雄鱼成熟系数为7.13%~8.34%。成熟卵径为(2.1±0.1)mm,每克卵子数为134.9粒,绝对繁殖力为12 630~40 470粒,相对繁殖力为每克体重12.6~28.78粒。通过干法授精,两年累计孵化极边扁咽齿鱼受精卵14万粒,平均受精率87.5%,平均发眼率77.5%,平均上浮率72%,发育平均积温为6 321.5 ℃·h。
英文摘要:
      Platypharodon extremus,an endemic fish belongs to Platypharodon of Schizothoracinae,Cyprinidae,and lives only in the upstream area of the Yellow River,the hinterland of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau,which was a small population size,narrow distribution,threatened species in China.It was included in the “China’s Red Book of Endangered Species of Animals Fish”,Vulnerable(V).As the Qinghai Tibet Plateau’s unique geographical location,P.extremus has adapted in the long-term evolution of the high altitude,strong radiation,low water temperature and other special environments,which also show the remarkably adaptable characteristics.With the intensification of human activities in recent years,the habitat changes and fragmentation,habitat barriers,water pollution,overfishing,the short growing seasons,slow growth rate,late age of sexual maturity and other factors,the populations of the species development were greatly limited.At present,the main distribution area has been gradually reduced to the upstream area of the Yellow River.At present,the population structure changed,the resource declined,the age structure turns into an extent status,the population of three investigation points where aboundance in the last time had disappeared today.However,the artificial propagation of this fish did not succeed.To explore the complete artificial propagation and in order to lay the groundwork for its resources enhancement.In this paper, P.extremus were captured from the Maqu at upper reaches of Yellow River and studies on techniques of artificial propagation and breeding were carried out in Linxia National Salmons Fishery Farm in Gansu province from 2007 to 2009.When reared for one year in pond in Linxia,some of the fish become mature.And,behaviours of propagation of the fish in nature could be controlled by adjusting the ecologic condition of environment they lived in.With the experimentation of artificial propagation for several years,some data of propagation and characteristics of P.extremus have been obtained.Under the artificial breeding conditions,their breeding season is from May to June.Individual females lay their eggs in the 30cm or more in length and weighing more than 750 g,and male body length of mature individuals is more than 30 cm and weighing more than 700 g.Both male and female reached the sexual mature at six years olds,the female mature coefficient ranged from 18.19% to 23.02%,male fish mature coefficient was 7.13%-8.34%; Mature eggs diameter was (2.1±0.1)mm,and the number of eggs per gram was 134.9.And absolute fecundity of grain for 12 630-40 470,and relative fecundity to 12.6-28.78 grains/gram·weight.Two-year cumulative hatching of 140 000 eggs were fertilized using the dry method and average fertilization rate was 87.5%,77.5% eyed rate,floating rate of 72% under the incubation temperature 10-14 ℃ conditions.And all the development of the average accumulated temperature of 6 321.5 ℃·h.Then use the Artemia salina as a weaning food,using formaldehyde solution disinfection.The artificial propagation of P.extremus was fulfilled first in China,which will contribute to its protection and resource proliferation releasing.
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