文章摘要
肖凡书,聂品.鱼类免疫球蛋白重链基因与基因座的研究进展[J].水产学报,2010,34(10):1617~1628
鱼类免疫球蛋白重链基因与基因座的研究进展
Immunoglobulin heavy chain genes and their loci in fish: progress and perspectives
投稿时间:2010-07-02  修订日期:2010-08-10
DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1231.2010.07021
中文关键词: 免疫球蛋白  免疫球蛋白重链基因座  基因  鱼类
英文关键词: fish  gene  immunoglobulin(Ig)  IgH locus
基金项目:国家重点基础研究发展计划资助(2009CB118703)
作者单位E-mail
肖凡书 中国科学院水生生物研究所,淡水生态与生物技术国家重点实验室  
聂品 中国科学院水生生物研究所,淡水生态与生物技术国家重点实验室 pinnie@ihb.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      归纳了脊椎动物中报道的所有的免疫球蛋白(immunoglobulin,Ig)的种类,重点阐述了鱼类免疫球蛋白重链(heavy chain,H)基因及其基因座的研究进展。硬骨鱼类中目前已发现有IgM、IgD、IgZ/IgT以及一个嵌合体IgM-IgZ,软骨鱼类中目前只报道了3种免疫球蛋白基因,即IgM、IgNAR和IgW。已报道的硬骨鱼类IgH基因座并非都是以传统的“易位子”排列方式进行排列,一般以(VH)n-(D)n-(JH)n-(Cζ)-(D)n-(JH)n-(Cμ)-(Cδ)的形式排列,不同硬骨鱼类的IgH基因座的结构特点、基因座中重链基因的数目以及基因座的拷贝数都存在一定差异。软骨鱼类中IgH基因座则是以“多簇”形式排列,即VH-D-D-JH-CH区段或VH-D-D-D-JH-CH区段在基因组中作为统一体多次复制。在不同种类的硬骨鱼类中,Ig表达器官或组织方面的研究结果并不完全相同,但一般在免疫器官如胸腺、头肾和脾脏中均有表达。目前对鱼类免疫球蛋白的研究尚不全面,要全面阐明鱼类B细胞个体发生、鱼类免疫球蛋白的结构、抗体产生的规律以及这些不同抗体在免疫反应中的作用等,都需要更进一步的研究。
英文摘要:
      Immunoglobulins(Igs),which bind antigens with high specificity,are important molecules in adaptive immune system of jawed vertebrates.This article summarizes all immunoglobulin isotypes reported in all vertebrate species,and focused on the current knowledge regarding isotypes and their loci in fish.Teleost fishes are found to express the isotypes of IgM,IgD,IgZ/IgT and a chimera IgM IgZ.In cartilaginous fish,three immunoglobulin isotypes,IgM,IgW and IgNAR have been identified,and IgW was reported also in lungfish.Furthermore,the genomic organization of IgH locus has been revealed in several species of teleost fish.The genome organization of IgH locus in channel catfish is a translocon arrangement,with three δ genes linked to a μ gene or pseudogene,and the loci in zebrafish,fugu and grass carp follow the pattern of genomic organization:Vn-Dn-Jn-Cζ-Dn-Jn-Cμ-Cδ.The organization of the IgH locus in rainbow trout is,in general,similar to that of zebrafish,fugu and grass carp,except that two VH genes are found downstream of the Cζ.The IgH loci organization in cartilaginous fishes are multi clusters,each consisting of a few gene segments(VH-D-D-JH-CH)or(VH-D-D-D-JH-CH).In different species of teleost fish,it is at least to some extent difficult or probably impossible to summarize a pattern in the expression of different Ig isotypes.Overall,these Ig isotypes are in general expressed in immune organs,such as thymus,head kidney and spleen.Despite the recent progress on the Ig genes and their loci in several species of teleost fish,many aspects such as the ontogeny of B lymphocytes,the pattern of antibody responses and the role of these different antibodies,and even the exact Ig gene composition and their loci may need to be further investigated either in different species or in greater detail.
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