文章摘要
胡毅,黄云,钟蕾,肖调义,文华,郇志利,毛小伟,李金龙.氨氮胁迫对青鱼幼鱼鳃丝Na+/K+-ATP酶、组织结构及血清部分生理生化指标的影响[J].水产学报,2012,36(4):538~545
氨氮胁迫对青鱼幼鱼鳃丝Na+/K+-ATP酶、组织结构及血清部分生理生化指标的影响
Effects of ammonia stress on the gill Na+/K+-ATPase, microstructure and some serum physiological-biochemical indices of juvenile black carp(Mylopharyngodon piceus)
投稿时间:2011-08-30  修订日期:2012-01-04
DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1231.2012.27713
中文关键词: 青鱼  氨氮胁迫  Na+/K+-ATP酶  鳃组织  应激  抗氧化系统
英文关键词: Mylopharyngodon piceus  ammonia stress  gill Na+/K+-ATPase  gill structure  stress  antioxidant capacity
基金项目:湖南省自然科学基金(11JJ3037); 国家大宗淡水鱼类产业技术体系(CARS-46-462); 中国水产科学研究院淡水生态与健康养殖重点实验室开放课题(2010FEA03018); 湖南省研究生创新课题(CX2010B285)
作者单位
胡毅 湖南农业大学动物科学技术学院 
黄云 湖南农业大学动物科学技术学院 
钟蕾 湖南农业大学动物科学技术学院 
肖调义 湖南农业大学动物科学技术学院 
文华 中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所, 淡水生态与健康养殖重点开放实验室 
郇志利 湖南农业大学动物科学技术学院 
毛小伟 湖南农业大学动物科学技术学院 
李金龙 湖南农业大学动物科学技术学院 
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中文摘要:
      氨氮是诱发鱼病的主要环境因子, 以初始体质量(7.00?0.14) g的青鱼幼鱼为研究对象, 研究氨氮胁迫对其鳃丝Na+/K+-ATP酶、组织结构及血清部分生理生化指标的影响。实验设置低(对照组0 mg/L)、中(10 mg/L)和高(20 mg/L)3个氨氮浓度处理组, 将暂养在自然淡水(对照)中的青鱼幼鱼分别放入各实验梯度中, 进行0、6、12、24、48和96 h氨氮胁迫。结果表明: 与对照组相比, 中、高氨氮组鳃丝Na+/K+-ATP酶活性分别在12 h和6 h 降至最低, 然后升高, 48 h达最大值, 96 h后与对照组水平相当。鳃组织光镜观察表明, 中氨氮组鳃小片基部泌氯细胞数量12 h有所增加, 24 h呼吸上皮细胞出现部分脱落, 96 h泌氯细胞出现空泡化, 部分鳃小片充血; 而高氨氮组鳃小片基部泌氯细胞数量6 h呈增加趋势, 12 h呼吸上皮细胞部分脱落, 24 h大面积脱落, 96 h鳃小片基部严重充血。血清皮质醇和血糖含量在胁迫12 h均升高至最大, 含量与氨氮浓度呈正相关, 48 h恢复至对照组水平。氨氮胁迫下, 血清总超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活力呈先升高后降低的趋势, 6 h时显著高于对照组(P<0.05), 中氨氮组12 h后与对照组差异不显著, 而高氨氮组96 h时显著低于对照组(P<0.05)。过氧化氢酶(CAT)活力12 h内均呈先降低后升高趋势, 48 h均恢复至对照组水平。氨氮胁迫前期, 血清总抗氧化力和谷胱甘肽均呈下降趋势, 丙二醛和谷丙转氨酶活力呈升高趋势。谷胱甘肽和谷丙转氨酶活力在96 h恢复至对照组水平, 而丙二醛96 h仍显著高于对照组, 高氨氮组总抗氧化力显著低于对照组(P<0.05)。由此可见, 氨氮胁迫初期, 鱼体抗氧化系统受到严重干扰。随着胁迫时间延长, 鱼体进行适应性生理调节, 但机体抗氧化能力下降, 鳃组织已受到损伤。
英文摘要:
      An important environmental concern associated with intensive fish culture is the production of ammonia, which is formed through ammonification of organic matter like unconsumed food and feces. The object of this study was to evaluate the effects of ammonia-N stress on the gill Na+/K+-ATPase, microstructure and serum physiological-biochemical indices of juvenile black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus. The black carp, whose initial average weight was (7.00 ? 0.14) g, were transferred off the freshwater and exposed to different ammonia-N levels: 0 mg/L (low, control), 10 mg/L (middle) and 20 mg/L (high) NH4Cl, each ammonia-N level was randomly triplicate and sampled at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 h, respectively. The results indicated that the gill Na+/K+-ATPase activities in the middle and high ammonia-N treatment groups decreased gradually at first and reached the minimum at 12 h, 6 h, respectively, then increased gradually and reached the maximum at 48 h, and returned to the same level as that of control group after 96 h. Gill microstructure observation showed that chloride cell in middle ammonia group increased at 12 h; pavement cells fell off partly at 24 h; chloride cells vacuolated partly, blood capillary fractured and red blood cell overflowed at 96 h. But in high ammonia group, chloride cell increased at 6 h; pavement cells fell off partly at 12 h and largely at 24 h; After 96 h, blood capillary fractured on the base region of the lamellae and congestion, pillar cell disorganized of arrangement. Serum cortisol and glucose concentration in ammonia-N treatment group increased gradually at first 12 h, and then decreased gradually and returned to the same level as that of control group after 48 h. The activities of total superoxide dismutase (SOD) in ammonia-N treatment group increased significantly at first 6 h (P<0.05), and SOD activity in the middle ammonia-N treatment group returned to the same level as that of control group after 12 h, but SOD activity in the high ammonia-N treatment group was still significantly higher than that of control group after 96 h (P<0.05). Serum catalase activity decreased at first 6 h and then increased and reached the maximum at 12 h, and then decreased and recovered to the same level as that of control group after 48 h. Total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), glutathione (GSH) and alanine transaminase (ALT) activities in am-monia-N treatment group decreased gradually at first 24 h, and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration showed converse trends. After 96 h, GSH and ALT activities in ammonia-N treatment group returned to the same level as that of control group, however, the MDA concentration in ammonia group was significantly higher than that of control group and T-AOC activity in high ammonia group was significantly lower than that of control group. These results indicated that the ammonia stress could seriously disturb the antioxidant system at short-term ammonia-N stress, but fish showed the self-regulation ability , however, the antioxidant capacity decreased and gill structure was damaged after long-term ammonia-N stress.
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