文章摘要
张婧,严兴洪,章守宇.铜藻的受精卵发生与幼孢子体发育[J].水产学报,2012,36(11):1706~1716
铜藻的受精卵发生与幼孢子体发育
Embryology of zygotes and early development of juvenile sporophytes in Sargassum horneri in laboratory culture
投稿时间:2012-04-16  修订日期:2012-05-23
DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1231
中文关键词: 铜藻  受精卵  幼孢子体  发育  人工培养
英文关键词: Sargassum horneri  zygote  juvenile sporophyte  development  artificial culture
基金项目:国家海洋局公益专项(201105008,201105023);国家高科技研究发展计划(863计划)资助项目(2012AA100811);国家自然科学基金资助项目(31072208);农业部公益性专项(200903030);国家农业科技成果转化资金项目(2011GB2C000005);上海市科委重点科技攻关项目(10391901100)
作者单位E-mail
张婧 上海海洋大学水产与生命学院 yuzhiqingtan@126.com 
严兴洪 上海海洋大学水产与生命学院 xhyan@shou.edu.cn 
章守宇 上海海洋大学 海洋科学学院  
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中文摘要:
      本文旨在通过室内培养,观察铜藻受精卵的发生与幼孢子体发育,搞清楚幼孢子体的适宜培养条件,为全人工育苗奠定理论基础。试验结果表明:在人工控制条件下,雌性生殖托的基部和中部首先集中排放卵子,并粘附于生殖托表面进行受精和发生。刚释放的卵子具有8个核,受精后8个核逐渐融合成1个大核。受精卵的第一次分裂为垂直于长轴的横分裂,形成2个细胞的幼孢子体,第二次分裂也为横分裂,发生在靠近幼孢子体一极的顶端处,产生一个“假根原细胞”,后者经过多次分裂形成假根。受精后约48 h,受精卵经多次横纵分裂形成具有假根芽的幼孢子体。培养15 d,幼孢子体已长出2个叶片,体长超过3 mm。培养50 d,幼孢子体体长超过20 mm,长出约10个叶片。在幼苗的早期培育阶段,较高的温度和长光照有利于苗体的生长和叶片数增加,适宜的培养条件为:温度21~24 ℃,光密度40 μmol photons.m-2.s-1,光周期14 L:10 D。
英文摘要:
      In order to establish artificial seeding techniques of Sargassum horneri, it was observed in this paper that release of eggs, embryology of zygotes, development and growth of juvenile sporophytes, and effect of culture conditions on germlings growth in laboratory culture. The results showed that the eggs released concurrently from the basal and middle section of female receptacles, and adhered to the surface of receptacles for fertilization and germination. Eight nuclei in a fresh released egg would intergrade after fertilization and then stated to nuclei fusion to form a larger central nucleus in the zygote. The zygote stated the first transverse division across the longer axis of the cell and produced a two-cell juvenile sporophyte, The second division transversely occurred near the one extreme of the juvenile sporophyte and produced a small cell named as “rhizoid original cell” which finally developed into rhizoids after several divisions. It took about 48 hours from the zygote to developed into multicellular germling with rhizoids through subsequent cell divisions. The mean length of Sargassum horneri germling was more than 3 mm and grew 2 leaflets within culture of 15 days. After 50 days of culture, these germlings grew up to 20 mm in the mean length and with 10 leaflets. During culture of the germlings, higher temperature and longer light length are of benefit to germling growth and increase of leaflet number. The germlings showed preferable growth at 21-24℃ under 40 μmol photons.m-2.s-1 and long-day (14L:10D).
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