文章摘要
孔 杰,罗 坤,栾 生,王清印,张庆文,张天时,孟宪红,王伟继,阮晓红.中国对虾“黄海2号”新品种的培育[J].水产学报,2012,36(12):1854~1862
中国对虾“黄海2号”新品种的培育
The new variety of Fenneropenaeus chinensis “Huanghai No.2”
投稿时间:2012-05-30  修订日期:2012-09-10
DOI:DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1231.2012.28183
中文关键词: 中国对虾  多性状复合育种  生长速度  抗WSSV存活时间  存活率
英文关键词: Fenneropenaeus chinensis  Multi-traits selection  Growth rate  Survival time  Survivorship in resistance to White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV)
基金项目:( 31072206,31172402),青岛市关键技术攻关类项目(11-1-1-11-hy),基本科研业务费专项资金项目(20603022011010)
作者单位E-mail
孔 杰 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 kongjie@sina.com 
罗 坤 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所  
栾 生 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所  
王清印 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所  
张庆文 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所  
张天时 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所  
孟宪红 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所  
王伟继 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所  
阮晓红 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所  
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中文摘要:
      选取中国对虾“黄海1号”、“即抗98”2个养殖群体,朝鲜半岛南海群体、乳山湾群体、青岛沿岸群体及海州湾群体等4个自然群体,采用不平衡巢式交配方案设计,于2005年建立了中国对虾育种的基础群体。设计并建立了中国对虾的多性状复合育种技术,选育的目标性状为生长速度、白斑综合症病毒感染后的存活时间及养殖存活率。为最大限度消除环境差异对遗传方差的影响,在中国对虾家系构建过程中采用标准化程序培育苗种,经过对体长为3cm左右的幼虾进行荧光标记,每个家系标记后混合养殖测试。随机从每个家系中抽取同等数目的标记对虾分成2组,一组共同养殖在养殖池中,测试生长速度和养殖存活率,另一组在封闭的水泥池中进行WSSV感染实验,测试病毒感染后的存活时间长短。中国对虾遗传参数的估计结果表明,养殖170天收获体重的遗传力为0.22,抗WSSV存活时间的遗传力为0.14,存活率的遗传力为0.03。采用BLUP法估算个体育种值,通过百分比加权的形式,分别赋予生长速度、抗WSSV存活时间和存活率的加权值为:80%、15%和5%,并对性状育种值进行标准化,获得综合选择指数;按照每个家系及个体的综合选择指数大小进行家系间及家系内留种,并根据系谱信息,设计交配方案,将每代的近交系数控制在1%以内。选育4代后的统计结果表明,平均每代的遗传进展为:生长速度,13.56%;抗病力,6.76%;存活率,5.05%。三个性状中,收获体重的遗传力最高、加权最大,每代获得的遗传进展稳定在12%以上;抗WSSV存活时间与存活率遗传力较低,每代获得的遗传进展相对小且不稳定。实验培育的新品种“黄海2号”于2009年通过全国水产原良种委员会审定,可在适合中国对虾的养殖区进行推广养殖。为更快地培育抗病新品种,解决对虾养殖病害问题,进一步的研究需查明对虾抗病的遗传机制,提高抗病性状的选择强度,快速培育对虾抗病新品种。
英文摘要:
      Two cultured populations of “Huanghai No. 1” variety and “Jikang 98” strain and four wild populations (the south coast of the Korean Peninsula population, Rushan Bay population, Qingdao coast population and Haizhou Bay population ) of F. chinensis were selected as base population via unbalanced nested breeding design in 2005. The multi-traits composite selection method was designed and applied for shrimp F.chinensis genetic breeding program, and three goal traits for growth rate, survival time and survivorship in resistance to White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) were estimated. In order to efficiently decrease the influence of environmental differences on genetic variance, the larvae were breeded by standardised process during the constructing of the families. All pedigreed shrimps were fluorescence-tagged when they reached a body length of 3 cm. These shrimps were tagged with a unique family code by injecting different colors of “Visible Implant Fluorescent Elastomers” (VIE) before being stocked in one grow-out pond. The same number of marked shrimps were chosen from every family and randomly divided into two groups. The group cultured in the same pond was used to estimate the growth rate and survival rate, and the other group cultured in closed cement pit was infected WSSV artificially, which was used to test survivorship in resistance to WSSV later. The estimated results of genetic parameters also show that, the heritabilities of the shrimps were 0.22 for body weight at 170d, 0.14 for survivorship in resistance to WSSV, 0.03 for survival time. According to the information obtained from estimating the breeding value of individuals using BLUP method and the method of percentage weight, the group was selected on an index weighted 80% for growth rate, 15% for WSSV resistance and 5% for survival rate. In addition the breeding values (BV) were standardized, and then aggregate selection index was obtained. The next generation of families was selected to produce based on Selection index values. According to the information of Pedigree, the best mating arrangement was designed and increasing numbers of inbreeding coefficient was lower than 0.01. After four generations of selection, statistical results show that, the genetic gains of each generation on average were 13.56% for growth rate, 6.76% for disease-resistant and 5.05% for survival rate. It was revealed that the heritability of body weight was highest and with the maximal weight, in addition, the genetic gain of each generation was steadily above 12%. However, the heritability of survivorship in resistance to WSSV and survival rate were lower relatively,and the genetic gain of each generation was less and unstable. As the first F.chinensis new variety with multi-traits (better growth performance, higher survival rate and longer survival time after WSSV infection) for extensively farming in China, “Huanghai No.2” was approved by China National Aquaculture Variety Approval Committee as a new variety for aquaculture in 2009. In order to produce new disease-resistance shrimp variety, solve the viral disease of shrimp farming, it was necessary to find out the genetic mechanism of disease-resistant and improve the selection intensity of resistance-disease.
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