文章摘要
赵志刚,罗亮,王常安,李晋南,王连生,都雪,徐奇友.不同鲤养殖模式生物絮团系统中鱼体的生长及水质[J].水产学报,2017,41(1):99~108
不同鲤养殖模式生物絮团系统中鱼体的生长及水质
Fish growth performance and water quality in different carp stocking modes biofloc systems
投稿时间:2016-04-23  修订日期:2016-10-08
DOI:10.11964/jfc.20160410375
中文关键词:   碳源  生长  水质  养殖模式
英文关键词: Cyprinus carpio  carbon sources  growth performance  water quality  stocking modes
基金项目:现代农业产业技术体系建设专项(CARS-46);国家科技支撑计划(2012BAD25B00);中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项(HSY201407)
作者单位E-mail
赵志刚 中国水产科学研究院黑龙江水产研究所, 黑龙江 哈尔滨 150070  
罗亮 中国水产科学研究院黑龙江水产研究所, 黑龙江 哈尔滨 150070  
王常安 中国水产科学研究院黑龙江水产研究所, 黑龙江 哈尔滨 150070  
李晋南 中国水产科学研究院黑龙江水产研究所, 黑龙江 哈尔滨 150070  
王连生 中国水产科学研究院黑龙江水产研究所, 黑龙江 哈尔滨 150070  
都雪 中国水产科学研究院黑龙江水产研究所, 黑龙江 哈尔滨 150070  
徐奇友 中国水产科学研究院黑龙江水产研究所, 黑龙江 哈尔滨 150070 xuqiyou@sina.com 
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中文摘要:
      为了探明不同鲤养殖模式生物絮团系统中鱼体的生长及水质变化情况。采用陆基围隔法,分别设置了鲤单养、鲤+鳙二元混养及鲤+鳙+鲢三元混养3种鲤养殖模式,每种模式设3个重复,测定了鲤不同养殖模式下鱼体的生长及水质参数,实验共进行90 d。结果显示,与单养模式相比,二元混养和三元混养鲤的存活率和鱼体蛋白质效率均显著偏高,而其总饲料系数则显著偏低。3种养殖模式中鲤肌肉的水分和粗脂肪含量相互之间差异均不显著,三元混养模式鲤肌肉的粗蛋白和灰分含量均显著高于单养模式。在3种养殖模式生物絮团系统中,生物絮团形成量与水温之间在19.3~28.5℃范围内呈显著的正相关。整个实验过程中,二元混养和三元混养水体的总氨氮、亚硝酸态氮、总无机氮、正磷酸盐及总悬浮颗粒物含量均低于单养模式,而硝酸态氮、总碱度、有机悬浮颗粒物及叶绿素a含量均高于单养模式,除叶绿素a之外,其余水质参数相互之间差异均不显著。研究表明,与传统的混养系统相似,在生物絮团养殖系统中,符合生物学原则的混养模式同样能够有效发挥养殖系统的生态功能,提高养殖效率。
英文摘要:
      The bioflocs can be used as an addition of high value feed by fish or shrimp. Water quality can be improved, and pathogenic bacteria can be controlled, thereby reducing the potential spread of diseases, and feed conversion ratio can be reduced in biofloc technology systems. Mirror carp, Cyprinus carpio, as a bottom fish, are popular with culturists because of its ease of breeding, fast growth, and tolerance to wide range of environmental conditions and resistance to diseases. The species is also ideal for use in polyculture systems because of its mild behavior and broad diet. Similarly, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), are the typical filter-feeding fish, which have drawn much attention worldwide because of their importance as aquaculture species as well as their potential for the biomanipulation of plankton communities. The multitrophic approach of combining species with different specific feeding niches maximizes resource utilization more efficiently than monoculture. However, there is little documentation on practicability of using biofloc technology for bottom and filter feeding carp in minimum water exchange pond polyculture systems. Therefore, a 90-day experiment was conducted to examine the effects of carbon source addition on water quality and growth performance of fish in different carp stocking modes land-based experimental mesocosm biofloc systems. Three stocking modes with mirror carp monoculture, mirror carp + bighead carp polyculture, and mirror carp + bighead carp + silver carp polyculture were arranged in three replicate enclosures. The results showed survival rates (SR) of mirror carp in polyculture mode were significantly higher than that in monoculture mode, and protein efficiency ratios (PER) of fish in two species and three species polyculture modes were 30.1% and 36.1% higher than that in monoculture mode, while the total feed conversion rates (TFCR) of fish were 22.7% and 26.3% lower than that in monoculture mode. The crude protein and ash of the muscle composition of mirror carp in three species polyculture mode were significantly higher than those in monoculture mode. The results showed a significant positive correlation between bioflocs volumes and experimental water temperatures at the temperatures of 19.3-28.5℃ in different stocking modes. The total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N), total inorganic nitrogen (TIN), orthophosphate (PO4-P) and total suspended solidities (TSS) in two species and three species polyculture modes were lower than those in monoculture mode, while the nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), total alkalinity, total suspended organics (TSO) and Chlorophyll a were higher than those in monoculture mode, and there were no significant differences in these parameters except for the Chlorophyll a between different stocking modes. The present study revealed that polyculture modes can effectively perform the ecological function and increase aquaculture efficiency in biofloc systems.
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