文章摘要
李文笙,王东方.鱼类microRNA研究进展[J].水产学报,2017,41(4):628~639
鱼类microRNA研究进展
A review of microRNA research in fish
投稿时间:2016-07-21  修订日期:2016-10-14
DOI:10.11964/jfc.20160710487
中文关键词: microRNA  鱼类  渗透压  发育  生长  生殖  免疫  代谢
英文关键词: microRNA  fish  osmotic stress  development  growth  reproduction  immunity  metabolism
基金项目:现代农业产业技术体系专项(CARS-49);国家自然科学基金(31472259);广东省海洋与渔业局海港建设和渔业产业专项(A201601C02);深圳市战略性新兴产业发展专项(NYSW20140401010064);现代农业人才支撑计划(2016-2020)
作者单位E-mail
李文笙 中山大学生命科学学院, 有害生物控制与资源利用国家重点实验室, 广东省水生经济动物良种繁育重点实验室, 中山大学深圳研究院, 广东 广州 510275 lsslws@mail.sysu.edu.cn 
王东方 中山大学生命科学学院, 有害生物控制与资源利用国家重点实验室, 广东省水生经济动物良种繁育重点实验室, 中山大学深圳研究院, 广东 广州 510275  
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中文摘要:
      microRNA是一种大小为18~25个核苷酸的非编码RNA,调控靶基因的转录后表达,广泛参与多种生理过程。本研究简要综述了microRNA生物学特性、转录后调控机制,详细讨论了第二代测序技术的相关应用、microRNA在鱼类中的表达模式、功能研究,包括渗透压调节、生殖、发育、生长、免疫、代谢等。现有的研究表明,miR-200和miR-30具有调控血浆离子浓度和渗透压平衡的功能;Dicer1是胚胎发育所必需的,在原肠胚时期,miR-20a调节头、眼、脊柱、体节的形态发生,miR-92调控内胚层的形成,miR-10影响体轴形成,miR-219影响头部和尾部细胞的凋亡;miR-122、miR-30、miR-145分别影响肝细胞成熟、肝胆管和肠道发育,miR-138和miR-143调控心脏发育,miR-126、miR-150、miR-451调控血小板、血细胞的发育和成熟,miR-10和miR-126影响血管生成,miR-200、miR-183分别影响嗅觉、听觉系统的发育,多个microRNA参与视网膜、肌肉、鱼鳍、肝脏等器官的再生;miR-133a/bmiR-206抑制肌肉细胞分裂,miR-214、miR-499、miR-199、miR-3906调控快肌纤维和慢肌纤维的生成;miR-430促进原始生殖细胞的生成;多个microRNA参与到禁食和再投喂调控的分解代谢和合成代谢平衡;此外,microRNA通过对免疫因子的调控参与到先天免疫、低氧适应、体色调控、应激反应、肌间刺形成等生理过程中。本研究通过对这些结果进行总结和讨论分析,将有助于对鱼类microRNA研究领域现状的了解和把握,促进鱼类非编码RNA研究的深入。
英文摘要:
      MicroRNAs, small non-coded RNA of about 18-25 nucleotides, regulate target genes expression by partially complementary binding to 3'UTRs (untranslated regions) and are involved in many biological processes. Recently, microRNAs have been studied broadly in teleosts. This paper briefly reviews the biological property of microRNAs and the post-transcriptional regulation they confer, focusing on microRNAs expression pattern and the discovery of microRNAs in teleost fish by next-generation sequencing. The function studies about microRNA in teleost cover osmotic stress regulation, reproduction, development, growth, immunity, metabolism and other biological processes. Results show that miR-200 and miR-30 family members control the cellular ion balance and salt resistance. Dicer1 is essential to the development of zebrafish, its deletion is lethal and the organogenesis will be impaired. MiR-20a regulates the morphogenesis of head, eye, spinal cord, somite during the gastrula stage; miR-92 controls the formation of endoderm; miR-10 regulates the formation of body axis; miR-219 affects the apoptosis of head and tail, and miR-122, miR-30 and miR-145 respectively adjust maturation of liver cells, the development of liver and intestinal tract. The development of heart is under the control of miR-138 and miR-143; miR-126, miR-150, miR-451 regulate the development and maturation of thrombocytes and hemocytes; miR-10 and miR-126 regulate the formation of blood vessel; miR-200 and miR-183 each regulate the development of olfaction and auditory system. Multiple microRNAs are involved in the process of organ regeneration. MiR-133a/b and miR-206 inhibit the proliferation of myocyte; miR-214/499/199/3906 are involved in the process of quick-twitch and slow-twitch muscle differentiation; miR-430 promotes the generation of primordial germ cell, and microRNAs are also reported to be involved in multiple physiological processes of energy homeostasis, innate immunity, hypoxia adaptation, body color regulation, stress responses, intermuscular bone formation. This paper summarizes those results and will benefit the understanding of the present situation of the microRNAs research in teleost and may be helpful for the promotion of the study in noncoded RNA.
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