文章摘要
朱国平,魏联.南极鱼类年龄与生长研究进展[J].水产学报,2017,41(10):1638~1647
南极鱼类年龄与生长研究进展
Age and growth of Antarctic fish species:a review
投稿时间:2016-12-01  修订日期:2017-03-10
DOI:10.11964/jfc.20161210626
中文关键词: 南极鱼类|年龄与生长|年龄鉴定|耳石
英文关键词: Antarctic fish|age and growth|age determination|otolith
基金项目:国家科技支撑计划(2013BAD13B03);国家自然科学基金(41776185,41606210)
作者单位E-mail
朱国平 上海海洋大学海洋科学学院, 上海 201306
国家远洋渔业工程技术研究中心, 上海海洋大学, 上海 210306
大洋渔业资源可持续开发省部共建教育部重点实验室, 极地海洋生态系统研究室, 上海海洋大学, 上海 201306 
gpzhu@shou.edu.cn 
魏联 上海海洋大学海洋科学学院, 上海 201306  
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中文摘要:
      南极鱼类生长相对缓慢,独特的生物学特性使其年龄鉴定较其他海区鱼类更为困难。但考虑到鱼类年龄鉴定是开展渔业资源评估的基础,因此过去一些年来,硬质部位,如鳞片、鳍条(棘)、脊椎骨以及耳石等仍成为南极鱼类的主要鉴龄材料。本文对南极鱼类年龄鉴定的方法和材料进行了总结回顾,将年龄鉴定的方法和材料进行比较,分析各自优缺点。结果显示:①对于具鳞的南极鱼类,因鳞片在鱼类生长过程中存在重吸收现象,因而利用鳞片及鳍条(棘)单独鉴龄所得出的结果通常小于耳石的鉴龄结果,缺乏精确性;②南极鱼类生活跨度较大,高龄鱼体长频次分布严重重叠,以致无法准确判断其年龄结构;③耳石重量法易受到特殊个体影响而误判年龄;④因鳍条易损坏,脊椎骨采集较为困难,且许多南极鱼类无鳞,目前大多数南极鱼类使用耳石鉴定年龄,其也成为目前最为精准的南极鱼类鉴龄方法,但同时利用鳞片和耳石重量等对鉴定结果进行验证;⑤南极鱼类尚存在无统一的鉴龄标准、人为主观性较强以及缺乏早期生活史研究等不足之处;⑥为了研究南极鱼类早期生活史,耳石微化学及微结构等方法将被广泛利用。
英文摘要:
      Antarctic fish species have a very long life history and are slow-growing. Age determination of Antarctic fish is more difficult than fish species outside the Antarctic area because of unique biological characteristics. However, age determination of Antarctic fish is the basis of fishery stock assessment. Recently, some calcified structures, such as scales, fin rays, vertebrae and otoliths became the main materials for age determination of Antarctic fish. This review compares different methods and materials of Antarctic fish age determination, as well as analyzes their merits and deficiencies to provide the references for further studying Antarctic fish species. The results showed that, compared to otolith, scales and fin rays were seldom used to age determination of Antarctic fish. Length frequency distribution could not be suitable to age older Antarctic fishes because of the long life history. Otolith weight could erroneously estimate the age of Antarctic fishes because of typical individuals occurring. Because fin rays are easily damaged, vertebrae are difficult to collect, the age of some Antarctic fish species without scales were frequently estimated based on otolith sections and verified by scales as well. Meanwhile, some disadvantages, such as no unified age determination protocol, strong subjectivity and lack of background knowledge of early life history, etc. limit the accuracy and precision of ageing Antarctic fish species. Otolith microchemistry and microstructure will be used extensively for studying early life history of Antarctic fish.
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