文章摘要
曾宪磊,魏宝成,刘兴国,顾兆俊,陆诗敏,车轩.基于Ecopath模型的复合养殖池塘构建[J].水产学报,2018,42(5):711~719
基于Ecopath模型的复合养殖池塘构建
Analysis of compound culturing pond build based on Ecopath model
投稿时间:2017-04-17  修订日期:2017-11-02
DOI:10.11964/jfc.20170410796
中文关键词: 池塘  复合养殖  Ecopath模型  营养传递效率
英文关键词: pond  compound aquaculture  Ecopath model  ecotrophic efficiency
基金项目:中国水产科学研究院基本科研业务费专项(2016GH01,2016HY-ZD0704)
作者单位E-mail
曾宪磊 中国水产科学研究院渔业机械仪器研究所, 上海 200092  
魏宝成 上海海洋大学水产与生命学院, 上海 201306  
刘兴国 中国水产科学研究院渔业机械仪器研究所, 上海 200092 liuxingguo@fmiri.ac.cn 
顾兆俊 中国水产科学研究院渔业机械仪器研究所, 上海 200092  
陆诗敏 中国水产科学研究院渔业机械仪器研究所, 上海 200092  
车轩 中国水产科学研究院渔业机械仪器研究所, 上海 200092  
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中文摘要:
      为了从能量量化的角度分析淡水池塘循环水养殖系统的构建,选择了在中国水产科学研究院池塘生态工程研究中心(上海泖港,30°57'1.89″N,121°08'52.21″E)构建的分隔式和序批式2种复合养殖模式,并选择了1个传统池塘作为对照。根据2016年全年的实测数据,应用Ecopath with Ecosim 6.5软件分析了3种淡水池塘循环水养殖系统能量流动特征。结果显示,传统池塘、分隔式池塘、序批式池塘饲料的营养传递效率(EE)最高,依次为0.77、0.75、0.99,饲料系数依次为2.5、2.8、1.6,表明按规格区分的序批式池塘系统更有利于饲料转化。枝角类、桡足类、轮虫在传统池塘、分隔式池塘、序批式池塘中EE依次分别为0.7/0.09/0.39、0.8/0.02/0.12、0.77/0.89/0.07,表明枝角类能被系统有效利用,但不同养殖模式影响着不同浮游动物的营养传递效率。另外,降雨和底泥沉积物EE均小于0.1,表明功能组底泥沉积物和功能组降雨没有被系统有效利用。生态位重叠分析显示分隔式池塘猎物重叠度指数最大,序批式池塘捕食重叠度最大,表明分隔式池塘中饵料竞争强度大,序批式池塘来自于同一捕食者的捕食压力大,分隔式池塘可以通过加强区域水体流动来降低饵料竞争强度。能流分析显示淡水池塘循环水养殖系统的主要能量流动方式为牧食链。系统总体特征分析显示,分隔式和序批式复合池塘在系统成熟度上优于传统池塘,说明通过复合养殖模式的构建,在改变单一传统池塘生态脆弱和提高系统多样性上是可行的。
英文摘要:
      Aimed at analyzing how to build a fresh water recirculating ponds aquaculture system from energy quantization point of view, separated pond and sequencing pond were selected in Pond Ecological Engineering Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences (Shanghai, 30°57'1.89″N, 121°08'52.21″E), as well as a traditional pond (control pond). According to a whole-year data tested in 2016, energy flow characteristics of three kinds of fresh water recirculating ponds aquaculture system were discussed by applying software Ecopath with Ecosim 6.5. The results show that ecotrophic efficiency of fodder the highest in traditional pond (EE=0.77), separated pond (EE=0.75), sequencing pond (EE=0.99). Feed coefficient of traditional pond, separated pond, sequencing pond were 2.5, 2.8, 1.6, separately. These indicated that sequencing ponds which feeding amounts were distinguishing among different size specification were more advantageous to feed conversion. Ecotrophic efficiency of cladocerans, copepod, rotifer in traditional pond, separated pond, sequencing pond were 0.7/0.09/0.39, 0.8/0.02/0.12, 0.77/0.89/0.07, separately. This suggested that cladocerans could be used effectively by system. But different culturing modes can affect the ecotrophic efficiency of zooplankton. In addition, ecotrophic efficiency of rain group and bottom sediment group both less than 0.1, indicated that the energy from rain group and bottom sediment group could not be used effectively by system. Niche overlap analysis suggested that prey overlap index of separated pond were the highest and predator overlap index of sequencing pond were most highest than others. It means that the intensity of bait competition in seperated pond were the largest and sequencing pond had more pressure from the predator prey. Seperated pond could reducethe intensity of bait competition by strengthening regional water flow. Lindeman spineanalysis showed that the dominant energy flow ways of fresh water recirculating ponds aquaculture systemwere grazing food chain. System characteristic analysis suggested that the system maturity of separated pond and sequencing pond were superior to the traditional pond, means that it is possible to change the traditional single fragile pond ecological and improve system diversity by constructing compound aquaculture mode.
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