文章摘要
郭洪洪,郑国栋,吴成宾,陈杰,蒋霞云,邹曙明.三角鲂(♀)×翘嘴鲌(♂)杂交F1的生长性能及形态差异[J].水产学报,2018,42(10):1572~1581
三角鲂(♀)×翘嘴鲌(♂)杂交F1的生长性能及形态差异
Growth performance and morphological characteristics analysis of the hybrid F1, Megalobrama terminalis (♀)×Culter alburnus (♂)
投稿时间:2017-09-21  修订日期:2017-10-30
DOI:10.11964/jfc.20170910978
中文关键词: 三角鲂  团头鲂  翘嘴鲌  属间杂交  生长差异;形态特征
英文关键词: Megalobrama terminalis  Culter alburnus  intergeneric crossing  growth advantage  morphological character
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(31272633,31201760);上海高校知识服务平台(ZF1206)
作者单位E-mail
郭洪洪 上海海洋大学, 农业部团头鲂遗传育种中心, 农业部淡水水产种质资源重点实验室, 水产科学国家级实验教学示范中心, 上海 201306  
郑国栋 上海海洋大学, 农业部团头鲂遗传育种中心, 农业部淡水水产种质资源重点实验室, 水产科学国家级实验教学示范中心, 上海 201306  
吴成宾 上海海洋大学, 农业部团头鲂遗传育种中心, 农业部淡水水产种质资源重点实验室, 水产科学国家级实验教学示范中心, 上海 201306  
陈杰 上海海洋大学, 农业部团头鲂遗传育种中心, 农业部淡水水产种质资源重点实验室, 水产科学国家级实验教学示范中心, 上海 201306  
蒋霞云 上海海洋大学, 农业部团头鲂遗传育种中心, 农业部淡水水产种质资源重点实验室, 水产科学国家级实验教学示范中心, 上海 201306  
邹曙明 上海海洋大学, 农业部团头鲂遗传育种中心, 农业部淡水水产种质资源重点实验室, 水产科学国家级实验教学示范中心, 上海 201306 smzou@shou.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      为探讨三角鲂、翘嘴鲌及其杂交子代的生长性能与形态差异,本研究开展了广东东江三角鲂(MT)与长江水系翘嘴鲌(CA)远缘杂交实验,获得了三角鲂♀×翘嘴鲌♂新型鲂鲌杂交F1优良组合。以团头鲂(MA)♀×翘嘴鲌♂杂交F1、三角鲂、翘嘴鲌、团头鲂自交子代4个群体为对照,比较分析了MT♀×CA♂杂交F1的生长性能及形态差异。结果显示,(1)土池同池生长性能在1龄时,MT♀×CA♂、MA♀×CA♂表现出显著的超父本CA杂种优势;2龄时,MT♀×CA♂、MA♀×CA♂表现出显著的超双亲生长优势;3龄时,MT♀×CA♂不仅具显著的超双亲生长优势,且体质量也显著高于MA♀×CA♂。(2) MT♀×CA♂的可数和可量性状多数表现为中间型。可数性状的分析结果显示,MT♀×CA♂臀鳍等多个性状介于父母本之间,平均杂种指数为65.00,接近中间值,略偏向于父本CA。可量性状表明MT♀×CA♂有7个性状分别与父母本有显著性差异,平均杂种指数为51.61,接近理想的中间值。(3)聚类分析显示鲂鲌杂种MT♀×CA♂和MA♀×CA♂聚为一支,MT和MA聚为一支,然后这两支汇聚后与CA聚为一支。主成分分析得到累计贡献率达56.02%的3个主成分,反映了鱼体高、躯干、头部和尾部的形态变异;通过构建5个群体的判别函数进行判别分析,判别准确率为87.1%~100.0%。研究表明,三角鲂(♀)×翘嘴鲌(♂) F1杂种表现出生长快、形态优等优良性状,有望进一步培育成为优良鲂鲌杂交新品种。
英文摘要:
      In the present study, a hybrid F1 of Megalobrama terminalis (♀)×Culter alburnus (♂) (MT♀×CA♂) was obtained by intergeneric crossing, based on M. terminalis, from Dongjiang River, and C. alburnus, from Dianshan Lake. Growth performance and morphological characteristics of MT♀×CA♂ were compared and analysed further, with M. terminalis (MT), C. alburnus (CA), M. amblycephala (♀)×C. alburnus (♂) F1 (MA♀×CA♂) and M. amblycephala (MA) as controls. The results are as follows: (1) at 1-year-old stage, both MT♀×CA♂ and MA♀×CA♂ grew significantly faster than CA, suggesting a remarkable growth advantage of over-male-parent. At 2-year-old stage, MT♀×CA♂ was similar to MA♀×CA♂ in growth rate, which grew faster than their parents. At 3-year-old stage, the hybrid MT♀×CA♂ had not only marked growth advantage of over-dual-parent, but also its body weight exceeded MA♀×CA♂ value. (2) Most numeric traits of MT♀×CA♂ presented to be medium. Among countable traits, the numbers of soft ray of anal fin and other traits are within the range of its parents, the average hybrid index is calculated to be 65.00, which shows that the countable traits approach the middle values between MT and CA, while slightly incline to its male parent CA. Of measurable traits, seven traits are significantly different from its parents, the average hybrid index is calculated to be 51.61, which indicates the measurable traits are also close to the middle values. (3) The results of cluster analysis revealed that MT♀×CA♂ and MA♀×CA♂ were much closer, the same to the MT and MA, joined CA again after the two groups clustered. Three principal components with accumulative variance percentage 56.02% were summarized in principal component analysis, reflecting the morphological variations of frame, head and caudal peduncle. Discriminant accuracy was 87.1%-100.0% by established discriminant function of the populations. In summary, the hybrid F1 of MT♀×CA♂ showed advantageous characteristics such as fast growth and excellent morphology, and it is expected to further cultivate improved varieties.
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