文章摘要
长牡蛎“海大3号”生长繁殖与营养成分的周年变化
Seasonal variation in growth and gonadal development of the Pacific oyster “Haida No. 3” in relation to the nutritive components
投稿时间:2019-01-17  修订日期:2019-06-30
DOI:
中文关键词: 长牡蛎  “海大3号”  生长  繁殖  营养成分  环境因子
英文关键词: Crassostrea gigas “Haida No. 3  growth  gonadal development  nutritive content  environmental factor
基金项目:山东省农业良种工程项目(2017LZGC009);中央高校基本科研业务费专项(201762014);泰山学者种业计划专家项目
作者单位E-mail
种金豆 中国海洋大学海水养殖教育部重点实验室 chongjindou@stu.ouc.edu.cn 
李琪 中国海洋大学海水养殖教育部重点实验室 qili66@ouc.edu.cn 
徐成勋 中国海洋大学海水养殖教育部重点实验室  
刘士凯 中国海洋大学海水养殖教育部重点实验室  
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中文摘要:
      为阐明长牡蛎“海大3号”新品种的生长与繁殖特性,自2016年11月至2017年10月对养殖于山东省荣成海区长牡蛎“海大3号”群体的生长、性腺发育及营养成分的周年变化及其与环境因子的关系进行了研究。结果表明,在海区水温较低的冬季1-2月,长牡蛎“海大3号”生长缓慢,性腺处于休止期;随水温升高,在春季3-4月配子开始发育,雌雄个体发育基本同步,4-5月壳高生长速率加快,湿重显著增加;在夏季,随配子发育壳高生长速率降低,7月因配子排放湿重下降;在产卵后的秋季长牡蛎“海大3号”壳高和湿重均显著增长。营养分析结果表明,随性腺发育,外套膜、性腺-内脏团、鳃和闭壳肌中糖原含量呈下降趋势,为配子发育提供能量;脂质和蛋白质作为配子主要结构物质,在性腺中不断累积,随配子排放而显著降低;在秋季,四个组织中较高的蛋白质含量为机体的快速生长提供物质基础。同时外套膜作为壳的分泌器官,在8-9月其糖原含量和脂质含量显著增加,这暗示机体的快速生长需要一定能量储备。研究表明,长牡蛎“海大3号”的生长和繁殖活动受海区水温季节性变化的影响,并与各组织营养成分密切相关。春季和秋季为机体快速生长时期,夏季为配子集中排放期;糖原是生长繁殖活动的主要能量来源,脂质是配子主要结构物质,蛋白质是机体产后恢复和快速生长的物质基础。
英文摘要:
      Seasonal variations in growth and gonadal development of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas “Haida No. 3” investigated in relation to environmental factors from November 2016 to October 2017, and the general nutrient components of the mantle, gonadal-visceral mass, gill and adductor muscle were examined in order to clarify its growth characteristics and reproductive strategy. Results indicated that in winter (January - February) when the sea temperature was low, the growth of C. gigas “Haida No. 3” was slow and its gonad was in the resting stage. With the increase of water temperature, gametogenesis began to develop in spring (March - April), the gonads of both sexes developed synchronously. The high growth rate of shell and the significant increase of wet weight were observed from April to May. During summer, the growth rate of shell declined with gamete development. In July, C. gigas “Haida No. 3” lost weight because of gametes emissions. In autumn, the shell height and wet weight increased significantly. The biochemical analyses showed glycogen content of all tissues decreased significantly during sexual maturation, whereas the protein and lipid content of gonadal increased as the gametes matured. It indicated that carbohydrates provide energy for gamete development, lipids and proteins is the major structural substances of gametes. During the autumn, the higher protein content of the four tissues provides the material basis for the rapid growth. The major function of mantle is to secrete shell, its glycogen and lipid content increased significantly from August to September, indicating that the rapid growth of the body requires a certain amount of energy reserve. The present results demonstrated that the growth and reproduction activities of C. gigas “Haida No. 3”are affected by seasonal changes in sea water temperature and are closely related to the nutrient composition of tissues. Organism experience the rapid growth period in spring and autumn, while summer is the spawning season. Glycogen is the main source of energy for growth and reproduction, lipids are the major structural substances of gametes, and protein is the material basis of rapid growth.
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