| Paramisgurnus dabryanus is an important freshwater aquaculture fish in China. It can also perform aerial respiration in addition to breathing with gill. However, the physiological effects of aerial inhibition on loach have not yet been elucidated. In this study, the histopathology of the main respiratory organs of the P. dabryanus was studied by inhibiting aerial respiration. The results showed that the inhibition of aerial respiration could cause the death of P. dabryanus around one week post of the inhibition. When the fish from the experimental group were moribund, the gills, dorsal skin, anterior intestine, mid intestine, posterior intestine, and rectum were harvested and subjected to Hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining, Alcian-Blue Periodic Acid-Schiff (AB-PAS) staining and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that: (1). By H&E staining, the gill terminal of the fish from the experimental group was congested, the blood capillary in the epidermis of dorsal skin were contracted and decreased, and dermis cells were deformed. The plicamucosa of anterior intestine was enlarged; meanwhile the connective tissues were denser in the rectum as well as with the exudation of red blood cells (RBc) in the serosa of posterior intestine. (2) By AB-PAS staining, the gills, dorsal skins, posterior intestine, and rectum of the fish from the experimental group revealed an increase in acidophilic vacuoles. Besides, the amount of acid mucoprotein on the submucosa layer of anterior and middle intestines were higher in the experimental group. By contrast, the neutrophil mucoprotein in the lamina propria was decreased in the experimental group. (3) By SEM, the surface of the gill lamellae was damaged and detached, resulted in wrinkling, together with the increased number of secretory pores on the surface of dorsal skin. More bumps were observed on the inner surface of middle intestine of fish from the experimental group. In addition, the granules on the inner surface of the posterior intestine and the rectum of the fish from the experimental group were increased. Taken together, inhibition of aerial respiration could cause an increase of the mucous cells and exudation of RBcs in the main respiratory organs, eventually it could lead to death. In summary, aerial respiration is essential for maintaining the normal physiological features of P. dabryanus. The current results will shed a new light on the seeding cultivation and sustainable culture of P. dabryanus.