文章摘要
我国鲫种群遗传多样性及起源进化研究进展
Research advances on the genetic diversity, origin and evolution of Carassius auratus in China
投稿时间:2019-08-29  修订日期:2019-10-23
DOI:
中文关键词:   分类  遗传多样性  起源  进化
英文关键词: Carassius auratus  taxonomy  genetic diversity  origin  evolution
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(31801032);河南省科技攻关(182102210081, 182102110164);河南省高等学校重点科研项目计划(17B240001, 18A240002);河南师范大学博士启动课题(qd16159)
作者单位E-mail
董传举 河南师范大学 水产学院 cjd1989@126.com 
李学军 河南师范大学 水产学院 xjli@htu.edu.cn 
孙效文 中国水产科学研究院黑龙江水产研究所  
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中文摘要:
      鲫分为指名亚种和银鲫亚种,是我国重要的淡水养殖对象,具有较高的经济价值。鲫适应性较强、分布地区广泛,遗传背景复杂且具有不同的形态和倍型。目前,众多学者运用多种方法对不同鲫的遗传多样性及起源、进化进行了大量研究。但研究方法、研究对象和标准之间的差异,使得结果之间存在较大分歧。本文对我国的鲫资源、遗传多样性及不同鲫的起源进化进行归纳总结,发现我国野生鲫种质资源丰富,不同野生鲫地方群体的遗传变异度较大,遗传多样性处于比较丰富的状态,具有较大的育种潜力。银鲫同一雌核发育系表现出高度的遗传同质性,但不同发育系之间存在丰富的遗传变异,表现出较高的遗传多样性。而按照人类自身喜好选育而成的金鱼,群体遗传多样性则远低于野生鲫群体。本文对于银鲫、彭泽鲫、其他鲫及金鱼的起源与进化也进行了探讨。银鲫的起源虽然存在争议,但大多数人的研究结果还是支持“银鲫与鲫属于一级亲缘关系,应归于同一个种,三倍体银鲫是在特殊环境下从鲫中分化出来的种群”这一观点。彭泽鲫可能是从养殖银鲫的池塘中逃逸而进入天然水域的外源鱼,也可能是起源于具有明显生长优势的野鲫,并因其优良性状而被选育出来。彭泽鲫不同雌核发育系的发现,使得彭泽鲫与银鲫和野鲫的亲缘关系更加复杂,对于三者的关系,仍需要进一步的比较研究。我国大多数地区的三倍体野生鲫具有独立起源的可能性较大,在某地形成后扩散到其它水系形成独立群体的可能性较小,但也不排除一些鲫地理群体是由于早年养鱼历史造成的外来鲫的入侵。金鱼可能起源于我国长江中下游的野生鲫,首先形成草系,然后分化出文种品系和龙种品系,随着时间的推移和人工选择,文种品系又分化出水泡系,龙种品系则分化出蛋系。虽然金鱼品种过多,但从线粒体的角度分析,均为同一母系起源。本文通过对我国鲫相关研究的梳理,分析和探讨了我国鲫的种质资源现状、存在的问题及未来的研究重点,旨在为鲫种质资源的合理开发、利用和保护提供理论依据,进而促进鲫产业又好又快发展。
英文摘要:
      Carassius auratus is the important aquaculture fishes in China and has high economic value, which can be classified into two subspecies: C. auratus auratus and C. auratus gibelio. C. auratus has strong adaptability, primarily inhabits freshwater and is widely distributed with complex genetic background and different morphology and ploidy. At present, scholars have studied the genetic diversity, origin and evolution of different C. auratus with various methods. And there are big differences in research results, due to the differences of research methods, objects and standards. This paper summarizes the resourse and genetic diversity as well as the origin and evolution of C. auratus in China. We found that there exists abundant germplasm resources and genetic diversity of wild C. auratus in China, and the genetic variation of different local groups of wild C. auratus is large, which indicated a great breeding potential of them. The same gynogenetic clones shows high genetic homogeneity, and various gynogenetic clones exists abundant genetic diversity. The genetic diversity of goldfish bred according to human preference is much lower than that of wild C. auratus. The origin and evolution of C. auratus gibelio, C. auratus var Pengze, other C. auratus and goldfish are also discussed in this paper. Although the origin of C. auratus gibelio is controversial, most of the results still support the perspective that “C. auratus gibelio and C. auratus belong to the same species, and triploid C. auratus gibelio is a population differentiated from C. auratus under special circumstances”. C. auratus var Pengze are maybe exotic fish of natural waters which escape from the pond where the C. auratus gibelio is raised or originated from the wild C. auratus, which has obvious growth advantages and was selected for its obvious fine traits. Also, the discovery of different gynogenetic clones makes the genetic relationship between C. auratus var Pengze, C. auratus gibelio, and wild C. auratus more complicated, and further comparative study is needed. In most areas of China, there is a high likelihood of independent origins of the triploid wild C. auratus gibelio, and a lower possibility of spreading to other water systems after forming in one place. That doesn't rule it out the early history of fish farming induced the invasion of some C. auratus geographic groups. Goldfish may originate from the wild C. auratus in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze river in China. It first evolved into grass goldfish, and then differentiated into fantail goldfish and dragon-eye goldfish. Yet as time passed and artificial selection, fantail goldfish was further differentiated into bubble eye and dragon-eye goldfish was further differentiated into oval goldfish. Although many varieties of goldfish, but they are the same maternal origin from the perspective of mitochondrial genome. Doing a carding to the previous research aiming at the C. auratus in China, for this study analyzes and discusses the present situation of germplasm resources, existing problems and future research of C. auratus, and paved a theory-based for reasonable utilization and protection of C. auratus resources, and to promote the good and fast development of C. auratus industry.
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