文章摘要
基于转录组数据的溪红点鲑微卫星标记筛选及引进群体遗传结构
Development of microsatellite markers based on transcriptome and population genetic structure analysis of introduced Salvelinus fontinalis
投稿时间:2019-09-09  修订日期:2019-12-30
DOI:
中文关键词: 溪红点鲑  转录组  微卫星标记  引进群体  遗传结构
英文关键词: Salvelinus fontinalis  transcriptome  microsatellite marker  introduced population  genetic structure
基金项目:
作者单位E-mail
郑先虎 中国水产科学研究院黑龙江水产研究所 jhzhxh@163.com 
鲁翠云 中国水产科学研究院黑龙江水产研究所  
孙志鹏 中国水产科学研究院黑龙江水产研究所  
党红阳 中国水产科学研究院黑龙江水产研究所  
匡友谊 中国水产科学研究院黑龙江水产研究所  
曹顶臣 中国水产科学研究院黑龙江水产研究所  
白庆利 中国水产科学研究院黑龙江水产研究所  
孙效文 中国水产科学研究院黑龙江水产研究所 sunxw2002@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      为了深入了解引进溪红点鲑种质遗传结构状况,本研究利用溪红点鲑转录组数据设计四核苷酸重复微卫星引物1 018对,选择其中200对进行引物合成,经过筛选鉴定共获得111个特异性好且扩增效率高的微卫星标记,用其中27个多态性标记比较分析了溪红点鲑引进群体和养殖群体的遗传多样性。结果显示,27个微卫星位点在2个群体中共检测到171个等位基因,多态信息含量(PIC)为0.426 0~0.877 4,平均为0.673 1,其中23个位点高度多态(PIC≥0.5)。引进群体和养殖群体的平均等位基因数(Na)分别为5.555 6和4.444 4;平均有效等位基因数(Ne)分别为3.914 5和3.108 2;平均观测杂合度(Ho)分别为0.356 2和0.265 0;平均期望杂合度(He)分别为0.700 2和0.621 0;平均PIC分别为0.640 9和0.555 5。引进群体和养殖群体的遗传参数t检验结果显示,养殖群体的5项遗传多样性参数均显著或极显著低于引进群体,表明尽管溪红点鲑养殖群体的PIC仍处于高度多态水平(PIC≥0.5),但是经过多代群体自繁,已经出现等位基因严重富集的现象。经Bonferroni校正的Hardy-Weinberg平衡检验显示,在引进群体和养殖群体中分别有8个和4个位点尚未偏离平衡,且多数位点表现为杂合子缺失。2个群体间具有高度遗传分化(Fst = 0.164 2),遗传相似系数为0.582 2,遗传距离为0.540 9,表明引进和养殖溪红点鲑群体间存在显著遗传分化。
英文摘要:
      Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) belongs to Salmoniformes and Salmonidae. It is native to northeastern North America with fast growth rate and high feed efficiency. Since it was introduced into China, it has become an important cultured species in cold-water. In order to study the population genetic structure and germplasm resource status of the introduced S. fontinalis population, 108 1 pairs of tetranucleotide repetitive microsatellite primers were designed by screening the transcriptome data of S. fontinalis. A total of 200 pairs were selected for primer synthesis, and 111 microsatellite markers with good specificity and high amplification efficiency were obtained through PCR amplification. Twenty-seven pairs of microsatellite primers were selected and used to analyze the polymorphism and genetic diversity of the introduced and cultured populations of S. fontinalis. The results were shown as fellows: a total of 171 alleles were detected in 27 microsatellite markers in two populations. The polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.426 0 to 0.877 4, with an average of 0.673 1, of which 23 loci were highly polymorphic (PIC ≥ 0.5). The average number of alleles (Na) was 5.555 6 and 4.444 4, the average number of effective alleles (Ne) was 3.914 5 and 3.108 2, the average observed heterozygosity (Ho) was 0.356 2 and 0.265 0, the average expected heterozygosity (He) was 0.700 2 and 0.621 0, and the average PIC was 0.640 9 and 0.555 5, respectively. The genetic parameters of the introduced population were tested by paired sample t test. The results showed that the five genetic diversity parameters of the cultured population were significantly or extremely significantly lower than those of the introduced population, indicating that although the PIC of the cultured population was still at a high polymorphic level (PIC ≥ 0.5), serious allele enrichment had occurred after multiple generations of self-breeding. Using a test of the Hardy-Weinberg principle (χ2 test) and Bonferroni calibration, all except 8 and 4 loci had deviated equilibrium in the introduced and cultured populations respectively, and most loci were heterozygote deficiency. There was high genetic differentiation (Fst=0.164 2), genetic similarity coefficient was 0.582 2 and genetic distance was 0.540 9 between the two populations, which indicated that there was significant genetic differentiation between introduced and cultured populations. These polymorphic markers may also be used in future studies of population genetics, linkage mapping and assisted breeding in S. fontinalis.
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