文章摘要
大亚湾珊瑚礁生态系统简化食物网结构与功能研究
Study on the structure and function of simplified food network in coral reef ecosystem, in Daya Bay
投稿时间:2019-10-12  修订日期:2020-01-09
DOI:
中文关键词: 珊瑚礁生态系统,食物网,稳定同位素,大亚湾
英文关键词: Coral reef ecosystem  food webs  stable isotope  Daya Bay
基金项目:国家重点研发计划“蓝色粮仓”科技专项(2018YFD0900905);中央级公益性科研业务专项资金资助项目(2017YB04)
作者单位E-mail
朱文涛 中国水产科学研究院南海水产研究所 2274430217@qq.com 
秦传新 中国水产科学研究院南海水产研究所 qincx@scsfri.ac.cn 
马鸿梅 中国水产科学研究院南海水产研究所  
席世改 中国水产科学研究院南海水产研究所  
左涛 中国水产科学研究院南海水产研究所  
潘莞倪 中国水产科学研究院南海水产研究所  
黎小国 中国水产科学研究院南海水产研究所  
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中文摘要:
      珊瑚礁生态系统结构复杂,为许多海洋生物提供适合的栖息地。阐明珊瑚礁生态系统的食物网结构,有助于了解珊瑚礁生态系统结构和功能。本研究应用碳、氮稳定同位素技术测定了大亚湾珊瑚礁区样品的δ13C 和δ15N 值,计算了消费者营养级并绘制连续营养谱,并利用大型底栖动物碳氮双坐标图来探究珊瑚礁食物网结构的季节差异性。结果表明:大亚湾珊瑚礁生态系统食物网 δ13C 值范围为-23.22‰~ -10.76‰,平均值为(-16.47±2.89) ‰; δ15N 值的范围为4.32‰~15.82‰,平均值为(11.46 ± 2.37) ‰。其中各潜在食源和消费者的碳、氮同位素比值之间均有显著性差异( P<0.05),不同来源的有机物对大亚湾珊瑚礁食物网的贡献各不相同,各消费者类群具有不同的营养位置。根据δ15N 值的计算显示大亚湾珊瑚礁区主要生物种类的营养级范围是1.88~3.83,表明珊瑚礁食物链缩短,食物网结构呈现简单化的趋势。腹足类、双壳类和鱼类的营养级跨度较广,分别为2.02~2.86、1.88~2.67、2.63~3.83,头足类的平均营养级最高,其次是鱼类、双壳类,主要与其食性相关。大型底栖动物的碳氮同位素比值在春、夏、秋、冬四个季节之间无显著性差异,大亚湾的季节性降雨会导致水体中潜在食物来源组成的季节变化,但珊瑚礁中存在的珊瑚—虫黄藻共生系统能有效地消耗和缓解季节性降雨带来的营养物质,使得底栖群落的碳氮稳定同位素季节变化并显著性差异。利用SIBER模型计算了6个量化指标,结果表明摄食来源多样性水平(CR)、营养级长度(NR)均在春季最高;生物对生态空间利用程度 (SEAc)在夏季最低;种聚集度密度参数(MNND)和物种聚集度均匀度参数(SDNND)均在秋季最高,在冬季最低。本研究初步阐明了大亚湾珊瑚礁区主要生物的稳定性同位素特征,建立了大亚湾珊瑚礁生态系统的简化食物网,评估了季节变化对底栖生物群落结构的影响,以期为大亚湾珊瑚礁的保护和管理提供基础数据。
英文摘要:
      The coral reef ecosystem is complex in its structure, providing a suitable habitat for many marine organisms. Food web construction is a key component ecology research to understand changes in the structure and function of coral reef ecosystem. Stable isotope technique was applied to analyze carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of major biological samples in the coral reefs of Daya Bay. The trophic levels of the main consumers were calculated to draw a continuous trophic spectrum in the area. Stable isotope biplots of δ13C and δ15N values of macrobenthos in different seasons to explore seasonal differences in coral reef food web structures. The results showed that the δ13C values ranged from -23.22‰ to -10.76‰ and δ15N values ranged from 4.32‰ to 15.82‰ of reef ecosystem food network in Daya Bay , respectively, with a significant difference between potential food sources and consumers (P<0.05).The contribution of organic matter from different sources to the Daya Bay coral reef food network varied, and each consumer group had different nutritional positions. The average δ13 C and δ15N values were (-16.47±2.89) ‰ and (11.46 ± 2.37) ‰, respectively. According to the calculation of δ15N value, the trophic level of the main consumers ranged from 1.88 to 3.83 as a whole in the reef area of Daya Bay. The coral reef food chain was being shortened, and the food web structure was also showing a trend of miniaturization. The trophic level of gastropods, bivalves and fishes was wide, ranging from 2.02 to 2.86, 1.88 to 2.67, and 2.63 to 3.83, respectively. The average trophic level of cephalopods was the highest, followed by fish and bivalves, mainly related to their diet. The carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of macrobenthos were significantly different between spring, summer, autumn and winter. Seasonal rainfall in Daya Bay could cause seasonal changes in the composition of potential food sources in water bodies, but the coral-salmonic symbiosis system in coral reefs could effectively consume and alleviate the nutrients brought by seasonal rainfall, so there was no significant difference in the seasonal variation of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in benthic communities. Seasonal variation of nitrogen stable isotope and significant difference six quantitative community indices were calculated using the SIBER model. The results showed that the nutrient level and the level of nutrient diversity in the food web were relatively stable. The level of food source diversity (CR), trophic level (NR) were highest in spring and bio-ecological space utilization (SEAc) was lowest in summer; species aggregation density parameter (MNND) and species aggregation uniformity parameter (SDNND) was highest in the fall and lowest in the winter. This study preliminarily clarified the stable isotope characteristics and established a simplified food network of the main organisms in the reef area in Daya Bay, then assessed the impact of seasonal changes on benthic community structure, with a view to providing basic technical support for the protection and management of coral reefs in Daya Bay.
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