文章摘要
水体盐度与饲料脂肪含量对尼罗罗非鱼生长、肌肉营养组成及品质的影响
Influences of water salinity and dietary fat content on growth, nutrient composition and fillet quality of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
投稿时间:2019-10-26  修订日期:2020-01-13
DOI:
中文关键词: 尼罗罗非鱼  盐度  饲料脂肪  生长  营养组成  肉质
英文关键词: Oreochromis niloticus  salinity  dietary lipid content  growth  nutritional composition  flesh quality
基金项目:国家重点研发计划“蓝色粮仓”项目
作者单位E-mail
吕宏波 华东师范大学生命科学学院水生动物营养与环境健康实验室 lvhongbo01@foxmail.com 
张志勇 华东师范大学生命科学学院水生动物营养与环境健康实验室  
张美玲 华东师范大学生命科学学院水生动物营养与环境健康实验室  
陈立侨 华东师范大学生命科学学院水生动物营养与环境健康实验室  
杜震宇 华东师范大学生命科学学院水生动物营养与环境健康实验室  
乔芳 华东师范大学生命科学学院水生动物营养与环境健康实验室  
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中文摘要:
      【目的】罗非鱼具有一定的盐度适应性,然而近年来罗非鱼饲料中的脂肪含量也有上升趋势,但水体盐度和饲料脂肪含量对尼罗罗非鱼生长、组成和肉质的影响尚未阐明。【方法】为此,本实验设置0、8‰、16‰三个盐度梯度,每个梯度分别投喂中脂(6%)和高脂饲料(12%),投喂初重为(5±0.2g)的尼罗罗非鱼8周,并测定其生长性能、血清生化指标、肌肉营养成分和肉质相关指标。【结果】结果表明:在中脂投喂下,与零盐和高盐组(16‰)相比,中盐(8‰)组的罗非鱼具有最大增重率、躯壳比、脂体比、肌肉蛋白含量、肌肉氨基酸和乳酸含量和总产肉率,但其脏体比、肝体比和肌肉pH值显著降低;而中脂高盐组的罗非鱼,其肥满度、脏体比、肝体比、全鱼总脂、肝脏TG、血糖、乳酸、TG、GOT较高,但全鱼和肌肉水分、全鱼灰分、产肉率和肌肉离心失水率降低。在高脂投喂下,随着盐度的上升,其摄食率、增重率、存活率和脂体比降低,但脏体比、肝体比和肥满度增大。其中,高脂中盐组罗非鱼的肌肉蛋白以及氨基酸含量显著降低,而高脂高盐组的全鱼灰分、肝脏TG、血糖、GOT活性、肌肉总脂、肌肉TG和PL含量显著提高,但全鱼总脂、肝糖原、产肉率、肌肉离心失水率和pH值显著降低。而不论在淡水还是盐水养殖情况下,与中脂饲料组相比,高脂饲料组罗非鱼均显示出更高的脂肪积累量和肌肉乳酸含量,以及更低的存活率和产肉率。尤其在高盐度水体中,高脂饲料对罗非鱼肌肉脂肪和乳酸积累的促进作用和对存活率、摄食率和产肉率的损害作用尤为明显。【结论】上述结果表明,在中脂饲料投喂下,适宜的盐度(如8‰)可以促进罗非鱼的生长并提高肌肉品质,然而,在高盐度水体中使用高脂饲料对罗非鱼的生长与肉质则有较大负面影响。
英文摘要:
      Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) has some salinity adaptability, and the dietary fat content of tilapia has been increasing in recent years, but the effects of water salinity and dietary fat content on the growth, composition and fillet quality of Nile tilapia are still unclear. Thus, we designed the following experiment. Three different salinities (0, 8‰, 16‰) were set to raise Nile tilapia (Initial weight 5±?0.2?g), and each salinity-group tilapia was fed with two lipid-content diets, medium and high lipid diet respectively (MFD, 6% and HFD, 12%). After 8 weeks of breeding, the fish were sampled, and the growth, serum biochemical parameter, muscle nutritional composition and fillet quality related parameters were assayed. The results showed that, among MFD groups, the fish in medium salinity (8‰) group showed highest weight gain rate (WG), carcass ratio (CR), mesenteric fat index (MFI) and content of muscle total protein, amino acids and lactate, but decreased viscerosomatic index (VSI), hepatosomatic index (HSI) and PH of muscle, compared with zero salinity (0‰) group and high salinity (16‰) group. And compared with zero salinity (0‰) group and middle salinity (8‰) group, the fish in MFD-high salinity (16‰) group showed increased condition factor (CF), VSI, HSI, whole fish lipid, hepatic TG and serum of glucose, lactate, TG and GOT, but reduced whole fish moisture, muscle moisture, whole fish ash, meat yield (MY) and centrifugal water loss. In HFD group, with the increase of salinity, feeding rate, WG, survival rate and MFI were gradually decreased, and VSI, HIS and CF were increased. In HFD group, the fish in medium salinity (8‰) group showed reduced muscle total protein and amino acid content. HFD-high salinity (16‰) cultured fish showed increased whole fish ash, hepatic TG, serum glucose, GOT, muscle total protein, muscle TG and PL content, and decreased whole body lipid, hepatic glycogen, MY, centrifugal water loss, PH. Regardless of freshwater and salt water, the fish in HFD group showed higher fat accumulation and muscle lactic acid content than in MFD group, however the reduced survival rate and meat yield. These results above showed that suitable salinity of aquaculture water environment can improve the growth and flesh quality of tilapia, but the high-fat diets with high salinity waters has a significant negative impact on tilapia growth and flesh quality.
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