文章摘要
大口黑鲈(♀)×蓝鳃太阳鱼(♂)杂交F1的形态及遗传特征
Morphological and genetic characteristics of hybrid F1 derived from lagermouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) (♀) × bluegill (Lepomis mearchirus) (♂)
投稿时间:2019-10-29  修订日期:2020-01-02
DOI:
中文关键词: 大口黑鲈  远缘杂交  形态特征  生长  5S rDNA
英文关键词: Largemouth bass  distant hybridization  morphological characteristics  growth  5S rDNA
基金项目:现代农业产业技术体系建设专项资金(CARS-46);广州市科技计划创新环境建设计划珠江科技新星专题(项目编号:201906010025); 广东省公益研究与能力建设专项资金(项目编号:2017A030303002)
作者单位E-mail
李武辉 中国水产科学研究院珠江水产研究所 1058049690@qq.com 
胡 婕 中国水产科学研究院珠江水产研究所  
孙成飞 中国水产科学研究院珠江水产研究所  
董浚健 中国水产科学研究院珠江水产研究所  
田园园 中国水产科学研究院珠江水产研究所  
赵金良 上海海洋大学水产与生命学院  
叶星 中国水产科学研究院珠江水产研究所 gzyexing@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      为探究大口黑鲈远缘杂交育种的可能性,本研究采用人工授精的方法进行了以大口黑鲈为母本、蓝鳃太阳鱼为父本的远缘杂交实验,成功获得了杂交F1子代群体。大口黑鲈(♀)×蓝鳃太阳鱼(♂)杂交F1的胚胎具有正常的发育时序,在平均水温22±0.5℃条件下,胚胎发育历时约49h,受精率约为65%,孵化率约为21%。室内养殖10周,结果显示杂交F1日均增重1.55g,饲料利用率0.75,杂交F1与大口黑鲈(日均增重1.56g)具有相似的生长速度,且显著高于父本蓝鳃太阳鱼(日均增重1.07g,P<0.05)。杂交F1的形态特征表现出明显的杂交属性,可数性状(侧线鳞数、背鳍、胸鳍和臀鳍数)和测量性状(可量性状和框架测量性状)均介于双亲本之间;少数测量性状比偏向于大口黑鲈而多数测量性状比偏向于蓝鳃太阳鱼,且部分性状比超越了双亲本。5S rDNA基因扩增和分析显示,亲本大口黑鲈和蓝鳃太阳鱼各有2种类型的5S rDNA,杂交F1继承了双亲本4种类型的5S rDNA;4种类型的5S rDNA 编码区序列(CDS,120bp)高度保守;杂交F1与大口黑鲈的2种5S rDNA类型的转录间隔区(NTS)均包含1个“GCT”可变区(序列长度186bp~205bp),而杂交F1与蓝鳃太阳鱼的2种5S rDNA类型的NTS则高度保守(序列长度分别为86bp,263bp)。5S rDNA分析结果证实了杂交F1融合了双亲本的基因组。本研究为大口黑鲈远缘杂交育种的开展奠定了基础。
英文摘要:
      In the present study, in order to explore the possibility of distant hybridization of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), artificial insemination was used and hybrid F1 were successfully obtained from distant hybridization between female largemouth bass and male bluegill (Lepomis mearchirus). The hybrid F1 embryos underwent apparently normal morphological development. The hatching time of hybrid F1 was about 49h when the water temperature was 22±0.5℃. The fertilization rate was 65% and the hatching rate was 21%. In hybrid F1, the average weight gain was 1.55g/day, and the fodder utilization rate was 1.24 after a ten-weeks in door cultivation, showed a similar growth rate with maternal parent largemouth bass, and showed statistical significant higher than paternal parent bluegill (P<0.05). The morphological characteristics of hybrid F1 showed an obviously hybridization properties. The number traits (number of lateral line scales, dorsal fins, pectoral fins and anal fins) and measurement traits (measurable traits and frame measurement traits) in hybrid F1 showed an intermediate level between the two parents. A number of measurement traits biased towards paternal bluegill more than maternal largemouth bass was observed in hybrid F1. In addition, several morphology traits of hybrid F1 were exceeded both of the two parents. 5S rDNA gene amplification and analysis showed that the two parents possess two different types of 5S rDNA, respectively, while the hybrid F1 inherits four types of 5S rDNA from parents. The four types of 5S rDNA coding region sequences (CDS, 120bp) are highly conserved. Two types of 5S rDNA transcribed spacer (NTS) from hybrid F1 and maternal parent largemouth bass had a base "GTC" variable region (sequence length range from 186bp to 205bp), while two types of 5S rDNA NTS from hybrid F1 and paternal parent bluegill are highly conserved (sequence length were 86bp and 263bp, respectively). These 5S rDNA types confirmed that the hybrid F1 fused genome of the two parents. Our study provides perspective in exploring distant hybridization of largemouth bass.
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